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Samuel Toombs, 
Co. F. i3lh Rest. N. J. \'ols.. Inf. 
LFrom a U'ar-tiuie Photograph — 1863.) 


Gettysburg Campaign 

FROM JUNE 5 TO JULY 31, 1863, 



Author of "Reminiscences of the War," and Historian of the 
Veteran Association, Thirteenth New Jersey Volunteers. 


By Specially Drawn Maps of the Battle-Field, the Monuments Erected 
by the State of ^Ve^^ef^^ and Portraits of Brigade 
a n (^Kegipie^'i 


The Evening Mail Publishing House. 


Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1887, by 


In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 

printed and bound at 

The Advertiser Printing House, 

newark, n. j. 







A GREAT deal has already been written about Gettys- 
burg. The controversies which have arisen are 
confusing to those who wish to ascertain the exact 
truth, while they afford little that is interesting to the 
general public. Personal reminiscences of the events 
which there occurred have appeared in print in great 
number, and if it be true that " few events worth recording 
befell any man below the rank of major," the reader of 
this book will find relief in the fact that the writer has 
no wonderful or remarkable personal adventures to 

In its main features the battle of Gettysburg is treated 
very much the same by all the noted participants in that 
struggle who have written about it, varying only in 
details which are colored by the writer's own views as to 
their importance. In preparing for the work of recording 
the services of New Jersey troops, not only on the battle- 
field but throughout the whole campaign, beginning with 
the reconnoissance across the Rappahannock river on 
June 5, 1863, the best works on Gettysburg have been 
consulted and the official records of the battle have been 
examined and studied carefully, with the view of ascer- 
taining just what services the soldiers of New Jersey did 
perform; and in thus bringing to the surface the exper- 


iences of the bivouac, the march, and the battle itself, as 
they were participated in by the men who represented the 
State of New Jersey in the Union Army, many interesting- 
and valuable matters have been brought to light which 
otherwise might have perished. 

While, therefore, the author has placed a certain limit 
upon the scope of this work, by which the valuable 
services rendered, the heroic achievements performed, and 
the personal sacrifices made by the patriotic sons of his 
native State on Gettysburg Heights are to be brought 
more particularly into prominence, the narrative will 
embrace the movements of the whole Army of the Poto- 
mac and record its priceless services to the Nation on the 
ground hallowed by the blood of thousands who met 
death as brave men wish to die. 

The instances of personal bravery were more numerous 
at Gettysburg than in any other battle of the war. Both 
sides contributed their heroes, and the tragic manner in- 
which the brave Southern General, Armistead, met his 
death, and the heroic Lieutenant Gushing fell at the post 
of duty, have already become immortalized as the two 
prominent instances of self-immolation during the strug- 
gle. There is a pathetic side to the death of Armistead, 
and there are those who believe he really courted it. 
When the news of the fall of Sumter reached the Pacific 
slope, the late Confederate General Albert Sidney John- 
ston was in command of that department. Generals 
Hancock, Armistead, Garnett and Pickett, were subordi- 
nate officers in the Regular Army, then stationed 
there, and many were the conferences held as to what 
should be their course in the pending troubles. The 


Government very unceremoniously relieved General John- 
ston, and soon after this event a farewell meeting was held 
in the house of Captain Hancock. What resulted is thus 
related by Mrs. Hancock, in the volume of interesting 
" Reminiscences " of her husband : " The most crushed 
of the party was Major Armistead, who, with tears, which 
were contagious, streaming down his face, and hands 
upon Mr. Hancock's shoulders, while looking him steadily 
in the eye, said: 'Hancock, good-by ; you can never 
know what this has cost me, and I hope God will strike 
me dead if I am ever induced to leave my native soil, 
should worse come to worst.' " The dying words of Armi- 
stead, on Gettysburg battle-field: "Tell Hancock I have 
wronged him and have wronged my country," illustrate 
how great must have been the mental strain under which 
he labored during the continuance of the war, and w^hat 
a sacrifice he made when he resigned his commission in 
the Regular Army, to take up arms in the defence of the 
dogma of State rights, which recognized allegiance to the 
National Government only as secondary to that of the 
State. Scores of other southern officers did the same, 
and that they acted from conscientious and honest 
motives cannot well be denied; but as in the case of 
Armistead, many of them felt that the South had 
adopted the wrong method for a redress of their 
supposed grievances, and that the war was forced upon 
them from other than patriotic motives. In the manner of 
his death Armistead's wish was gratified. How different 
was the last act of young Gushing, who commanded Bat- 
tery "A" Fourth United States Artillery, whose life blood 
ebbed away at almost the same moment that Armistead 


received his death wound. Mortally wounded though 
he was, he summoned up all his strength and running 
his gun down into the very faces of the exultant foe, he 
turned to his commander and said: '' Webb, I will give 
them one more shot," and when the last discharge was 
made, called out, "good-by"and fell dead by the side 
of his gun. With the spirit that pervaded these men, 
both armies fought at Gettysburg, and it is easily 
understood why the several encounters which took 
place on all parts of that field were so stubbornly and 
so vigorously contested. 

The State of New Jersey has commemorated the 
services of her troops in enduring granite. To supple- 
ment this work by a faithful and accurate account of the 
exhaustive nature of these services has been the desire of 
the writer, who has received the cordial cooperation of 
many of the survivors, and is largely indebted also to 
Adjutant-General W. S. Stryker, his faithful assistant. 
Colonel James S. Kiger, Honorable William H. Corbin, 
Secretary of the New Jersey Battle-Field Commission, 
General Ezra A. Carman, General W. H. Penrose, Colonel 
William E. Potter, Major W. W. Morris, Captain William 
F. Hillyer, Thomas S. Marbaker, Historian Eleventh 
New Jersey Regiment, Captain H. F. Chew, George J. 
Hagar, Esq., and many others, members of the several 
regimental organizations, for valuable information and 
aid furnished. The government maps of Colonel J. B. 
Bachelder have also been consulted and to them the 
writer is largely indebted, as well as to Colonel Bachelder 
himself for very important information received. The 
maps on pages 155, 157 and 162 are from General Double- 

IX TR on UC TOR Y. j x 

day's book on "Chancellorsville and Gettysburg," Charles 
Scribner's Sons, publishers, who have kindly given permis- 
sion for their use. Those on pages 250, 251 and 301 are 
inserted only for general reference and do not conform 
literally to the text. The portraits, monuments and small 
maps were all made especially for this book from original 
photographs and drawings. S. T, 

Orange, N. J., July i, 1888. 

Note, — The wrong totals appear at foot of table on page 11. They 
should be: Officers, 512; men, 12,311; total, 12,823. These figures 
increase the percentage of waste as shown on page 12, line seven, 
from sixty to sixty-five per cent. 

On page 64, first word, last line, should be southwest. 

On page 139, eighth line, Harrisburg should be Gettysburg. 


Chapter I, — New Jersey Regiments in the Army of the Potomac 
from 1861 to June 30, 1863, their assignments to duty and 
the commands with which they served — Tables showing 
losses for two years i 

Chapter II. — Resume of historical facts — Public feeling in the 
South — Temper of the Rebel Army — Position of both armies 
in June, 1863 — The fight at Franklin's Crossing on the Rap- 
pahannock — Gallant charge by the Twenty-sixth New Jersey 16 

Chapter III. — Lee's plan of campaign — Disposition of his forces 
— General Hooker mystified but not deceived — The cavalry 
fight at Brandy Station — The First New Jersey Cavalry's 
brilliant charge 34 

Chapter IV. — Ewell's dashing advance through the valley — Mil- 
roy surprised at Winchester — The Fourteenth New Jersey 
on Maryland Heights — History of the corps badge — The 
New Jersey troops and their commanders — An exhaustive 
march _ 64 

Chapter V. — Ewell at Williamsport — Jenkins' raid in Pennsyl- 
vania — Consternation throughout the North — New Jersey 
Volunteers go to the defence of Harrisburg — Hooker 
advances to a new line of observation — Incidents of the 
march — Execution of deserters — An incident of President 
Lincoln's mercy and why it failed... 79 

Chapter VI. — From the Rappahannock to Gum Springs — Experi- 
ences of the Seventh New Jersey Regiment and the Second 
Brigade — Useless night work — An all-night march ..... 99 


Chapter VII. — Hooker's perplexities aggravated — A dashing cav- 
alry exploit — Lee's army in Pennsylvania — The Union 
forces cross the Potomac — Stuart's raid — General Hooker 
resigns io8 

Chapter VIII. — The alarm in the North — New Jersey's Governor 
appeals to the President — The new Union commander — 
Movements of the armies — Reminiscenses of an officer of 
the Second New Jersey Brigade — The Thirteenth New 
Jersey at Littlestown — The night before the battle I22 

Chapter IX. — The first day's fight at Gettysburg — Gallantry of 
Buford's troopers — Heroic resistance by the First Army 
Corps — Death of General Reynolds — Arrival of Howard and 
the retreat to Cemetery Ridge — Hancock's opportune arrival 
on the field .. 140 

Chapter X. — The New Jersey troops coming on the field of battle 
— Rapid and exhaustive marching — The Eleventh Regiment 
undergo a fatiguing night march — The Second New Jersey 
Brigade march between the skirmish lines of both armies — 
The Twelfth Regiment in line of battle — The deployment of 
Sickles' line — The Thirteenth Regiment on Gulp's Hill — 
Arrival of the First New Jersey Brigade at four o'clock — A 
forced march of thirty-five miles 174 

Chapter XI. — The second day's battle — Sickles' new line — Long- 
street's attempt to turn the Federal left — The Second New 
Jersey Brigade, the Eleventh Regiment, and Battery " B," 
First New Jersey Artillery, in action — Hood repulsed at 
Little Round Top — A gallant and successful charge by the 
Twelfth New Jersey Regiment — Casualties among the New 
Jersey troops ig3 

Chapter XII.— The second day's battle concluded— The Twelfth 

■ Corps' position attacked by Ewell's troops — Green's heroic 

defence — The attack on Cemetery Hill — A fierce and deadly 

hand-to-hand struggle — Return of the Twelfth Corps to the 

right during the night 259 


Chapter XIIL— The Third day's battle — The Twelfth Corps 
charge the enemy at Culp's Hill and regain their works — 
The Second Massachusetts and the Twenty-seventh Indiana 
Regiments charge the enemy supported by the Thirteenth 
New Jersey Regiment — Lee foiled in his attack on the Fed- 
eral right 268 

Chapter XIV. — The third day's battle concluded — Longstreet's 
charge on Cemetery Ridge — Disastrous repulse of Pickett's 
and Heth's divisions — Dreadful execution with "buck and 
ball" by the Twelfth New Jersey — Hexamer's old battery 
("A" First New Jersey) engaged — The First New Jersey 
Cavalry win new laurels . — .- 277 

Chapter XV. — After the battle — Scenes on the field — The care of 
the wounded — Effect of General Meade's order sending all 
wagons to the rear — Prompt and effective service at the 
Twelfth Corps Hospital — Retreat of Lee's army and the 
pursuit 317 

Chapter XVI. — Organization of the Gettysburg Battle-Field Com- 
mission — A record of its work — Description of the monu- 
ments 333 

Biographical Sketches of Portraits 359 


Author Frontispiece. 


Map — Location of New Jersey Monuments xvii 

Major-General Joseph Hooker 13 

Advance of Twenty-sixth New Jersey Volunteers 23 

Captain Samuel U. Dodd 29 

Major William W. Morris _. 35 

Colonel Percy Wyndham . 43 

Major-General H. Judson Kilpatrick 53 

Colonel Hugh H. Janeway 59 

Lieutenant Rochus Heinisch 67 

Major-General George G. Meade 75 

Major-General A. T. A. Torbert _ 83 

Colonel James N. Duffy 89 

Lieutenant-Colonel William Henry, Jr. 95 

Colonel Samuel L. Buck loi 

Colonel Henry N. Brown 109 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ewing 115 

Brevet Major-General William J. Sewell 123 

Colonel George C. Burling — 131 

Colonel Louis R. Francine .. - 141 

Map — Position of Troops July i - 145 

Brevet Major-General John Ramsey ,. 147 

Map — Advance of Davis' and Archer's Brigades -.. 155 

Map — Defeat of Davis and Archer 157 

Brevet Major-General Robert McAllister 159 

Map — Advance of Heth's Division against Doubleday 162 

Brevet Colonel John Schoonover .-. 165 

Major John T. Hill .-. - I75 

Map— First Position Thirteenth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 182 

X vi J^^L US TKA riONS. 


Brevet Brigadier-General Ezra A. Carman 185 

Brevet Brigadier-General Frederick H. Harris 191 

Brevet Major A. Judson Clark 203 

Map — Position of Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Eleventh New 

Jersey Regiments — July 2 207 

Captain Ambrose M. Matthews 211 

Brigadier-General William H, Penrose _ 217 

Monument First New Jersey Brigade 229 

Monument Fifth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers -. 233 

Monument Sixth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 245 

Map — The Fight for Little Round Top 246 

Map — Ruger's Division Twelfth Corps 248 

Map — Longstreet in Position for Attack on Sickles 250 

Map — Union Line after Sickles' Defeat 251 

Monument Seventh Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 255 

Map — Repulse of Louisiana Tigers .-.._ 265 

Map — Fourth Position of Thirteenth Regiment New Jersey 

Volunteers 267 

Monument Eighth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 269 

Map — Twelfth Corps Charging on Gulp's Hill... 272 

Map — Last Position Thirteenth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers. 273 

Monument Eleventh Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 289 

Map — Repulse of Longstreet's Charge July 3 — Position of Twelfth 

New Jersey Volunteers 283 

Marker Twelfth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers at Bliss Barn__ 291 

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel William E. Potter ^. 295 

Map — The General Line of Battle at time of Pickett's Charge .... 301 

Map — New Jersey Regiments — July 2 310 

Monument Twelfth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 311 

Monument Thirteenth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers... 319 

Surgeon J. J. H. Love 323 

New Jersey Battle-Field Commission 335 

Monument Battery "A" (Parsons') First New Jersey Artillery 339 

Monument Battery " B" (Clark's) First New Jersey Artillery 349 

Monument First New Jersey Cavalry 357 


MAC FROM 1 86 1 TO JUNE 30, 1 863, THEIR ASSIGN- 

THE patriotism of the citizens of New Jersey 
during the stormy period of 1861-65, was 
attested on many occasions, not alone by the 
valor of her soldiery on scores of battle-fields, but by 
the promptness with which the people responded to 
the call of the National Government for troops, and 
the thorough manner in which the several organiza- 
tions were armed and equipped before leaving the 
State. No appeal by the general government was 
ever made to the State authorities for assistance in 
vain. Governor Olden cooperated heartily and cordi- 
ally with the President and Secretary of War in all 
their efforts to suppress the rebellion in its infancy, 
and at the very outbreak of hostilities forwarded to 
Washington a brigade of four regiments, aggregating 
three thousand men, for three months' service under 
command of General Theodore Runyon. This bri- 
gade was fully armed and equipped at the expense 


of the State and was the first completely equipped 
body of troops to make its appearance at the National 
Capital, where it was greeted with the utmost grati- 
fication by the President. The Secretary of War 
feelingly appreciated the promptness of the State 
authorities in so generously and effectively aiding the 
National Government in its efforts to preserve its 
own integrity, and in a letter to Governor Olden 
cordially acknowledged the great service thus ren- 
dered, and in the name of the government tendered 
its sincere thanks to the people of the commonwealth. 
The theory entertained by the National authorities 
that the rebellion would be crushed out in three 
months' time soon proved erroneous. The rebellious 
states waxed bolder and bolder in their defiance of the 
National Government and resisted every offer of peace 
so determinedly, that a call was issued for thirty-nine 
regiments of infantry and one of cavalry to serve for 
three years or during the war, the quota for New 
Jersey being three regiments of infantry. Before 
another month had expired a second demand was 
made upon the State, this time for five additional 
regiments, all to serve for the same period of time. 
Under these calls there were promptly raised two 
brigades of infantry and two batteries of artillery, 
as follows : 

First Regiment— Colonel, William R. Montgomery. 
Second Regiment — Colonel, George W. McLean. 
Third Regiment — Colonel, George W. Taylor. 


Fourth Regiment — Colonel, James H. Simpson. 
Battery "A" First New Jersey Artillery — Captain 
William Hexamer, Commanding. 

These regiments formed the First New Jersey Bri- 
gade, and were assigned to duty with Franklin's 
Division. General Philip Kearny was commissioned 
by Governor Olden and placed in command of the 
brigade. The Second Brigade was composed of the 
following : 

Fifth Regiment — Colonel, Samuel H. Starr. 
Sixth Regiment — Colonel, James T. Hatfield. 
Seventh Regiment — Colonel, Joseph W. Revere. 
Eighth Regiment — Colonel, Adolphus J. Johnson. 
Battery " B " First New Jersey Artillery — Captain 
John E. Beam, Commanding. 

This brigade was assigned to Hooker's Division 
where it became a great favorite and was eventually 
known as '' Hooker's Old Guard." It formed the 
Third Brigade of the Second Division, Third Army 
Corps, and was commanded by Colonel Starr of the 
Fifth Regiment, the senior officer. 

Rapidly as these organizations were formed the 
opportunities presented for enlistment were not suffi- 
cient to satisfy the desires of a great many who 
were anxious to go to the war. Thousands of Jersey- 
men enlisted in the regiments of other States, and 
whole companies left Newark, Elizabeth, Rahway, 
Orange and other places and were incorporated with 


New York and Pennsylvania regiments and credited 
to those States, 

The Ninth Regiment was specially authorized by 
the War Department as a rifle regiment, and in a 
short time its ranks were full. Under the command 
of Colonel Joseph W. Allen it proceeded to North 
Carolina, as part of the Burnside Expedition, gaining 
immediate renown at the Battle of Roanoke Island. 

The War Department also gave direct authority 
for the raising of an infantry regiment in the State, 
to be known as the ''Olden Legion." The Governor 
strenuously opposed this movement, and would have 
nothing whatever to do with it. Finally the State 
agreed to accept it and the Governor commissioned 
William R. Murphy its Colonel, and designated it as 
the Tenth Regiment. 

In August 1861, a regiment of cavalry known as 
'' Halstead's Horse " was ordered to be recruited in 
the State by the direct authority of President Lin- 
coln, and the companies as soon as formed were 
forwarded to Washington. Like the Tenth Infantry, 
dissatisfaction, wrangling and vexation ensued, and 
finally the State authorities were prevailed upon to 
accept it, when it became the First New Jersey 
Cavalry with Sir Percy Wyndham as its Colonel. 

On July 7th, 1862, a call was issued for three 
hundred thousand men to serve for three years or 
during the war, under which the following organiza- 
tions were formed and sent to Washington : 


Eleventh Regiment— Colonel, Robert McAllister. 
Twelfth Regiment — Colonel, Robert C. Johnson. 
Thirteenth Regiment — Colonel, Ezra A. Carman. 
Fourteenth Regiment— Colonel, William S. Truex. 
Fifteenth Regiment — Colonel, Samuel Fowler. 

Instead of brigading these ti*oops together, the 
exigencies of the service demanded their immediate 
presence in Washington as soon as possible after their 
muster-in. The Eleventh Regiment was assigned to 
Carr's Brigade, Sickles' Division, Third Army Corps ; 
the Twelfth Regiment to the Second Brigade, Third 
Division, Second Army Corps ; the Thirteenth Regi- 
ment to Gordon's Brigade, Williams' Division, Banks' 
Corps ; the Fourteenth Regiment to a Provisional 
Brigade, Middle Division, Eighth Army Corps ; and 
the Fifteenth to the First New Jersey Brigade, First 
Division, Sixth Army Corps. 

The State had shown commendable promptness in 
forwarding its troops to the seat of war, and the 
repeated calls upon the people for volunteer soldiers 
were responded to with alacrity. The total number 
of three years troops furnished to the Government 
by New Jersey up to this period amounted to six 
hundred and twenty-eight officers and fifteen thou- 
sand two hundred and seventy-seven enlisted men ; 
total fifteen thousand nine hundred and five. These 
figures are from the Adjutant General's report, the 
original muster of each regiment being as follows : 



First Regiment Cavalry 

First Regiment Artillery Battery A 
First Regiment Artillery Battery B 

First Regiment Infantry... 

Second Regiment Infantry.. 

Third Regiment Infantry 

Fourth Regiment Infantry 

Fifth Regiment Infantry... 

Sixth Regiment Infantry. 

Seventh Regiment Infantry 

Eighth Regiment Infantry .. 

Ninth Regiment Infantry — 

Tenth Regiment Infantry 

Eleventh Regiment Infantry 

Twelfth Regiment Infantry 

Thirteenth Regiment Infantry 

Fourteenth Regiment Infantry 

Fifteenth Regiment Infantry 


















































With the single exception of the Ninth Regiment 
these organizations all served, at one time or another, 
with the Army of the Potomac in the field, and deduct- 
ing the number represented by the Ninth Regiment, 
the actual number of men furnished by New Jersey to 
that Army was fiv^e hundred and eighty-six officers and 
fourteen thousand one hundred and sixty-two enlisted 
men, a total of fourteen thousand seven hundred and 
forty-eight. The First and Second New Jersey Bri- 
gades followed the fortunes of the Army of the 
Potomac through all its checkered career from the 
Peninsula campaign under McClellan to the surrender 
of Lee at Appomattox, Avinning imperishable renown 


on scores of battle-fields for their bravery, endurance 
and fighting qualities. 

The defeat of General Pope at the second battle 
of Bull Run filled the people of the North with dismay, 
and the authorities at Washington with fear for the 
safety of the Capital. On the 4th of August, 1862, the 
President issued a call for three hundred thousand men 
for nine months' service, a draft being ordered to take 
place on September ist ensuing, if the number required 
were not sooner furnished by volunteers. The quota 
for New Jersey under this call was placed at ten thou- 
sand four hundred and seventy-eight, and orders were 
at once issued to proceed with the recruiting of this 
number. At the same time the State was engaged in 
filling its quota under the previous call of July 7th for 
three year troops, and in order to meet this extra 
emergency, city, township and county officials, offered 
liberal inducements for men to take service in these 
commands, and thus avoid the draft so imperatively 
ordered. On the third day of September the Adjutant- 
General announced the formation of eleven regiments 
for nine months' service, with an aggregate of ten thou- 
sand seven hundred and fourteen men, all volunteers, 
and being an excess of two hundred and thirty-six over 
the number called for. These regiments were num- 
bered, officered and assigned to duty as follows : 

Twenty-first Regiment — Colonel, GiUian Van Hou- 
ten ; assigned to Third Brigade, Second Division, Sixth 
Army Corps. 


Twenty-second Regiment — Colonel, Cornelius For- 
net*; assigned to duty in the Defences of Washington, 
and afterward to the Third Brigade, First Division, 
First Army Corps. 

Twenty-third Regiment— Colonel, John S. Cox; 
assigned to the First New Jersey Brigade, First Divis- 
ion, Sixth Army Corps. 

Twenty -fourth Regiment — Colonel, William B. 
Robertson ; assigned to duty first in the Defences of 
Washington, and afterward with Kimball's Brigade, 
French's Division, Couch's (Second) Corps. 

Twenty-fifth Regiment — Colonel, Andrew Derrom ; 
assigned to Second Brigade of Casey's Division, and 
afterward to First Brigade, Third Division, Ninth 
Army Corps. 

Twenty-sixth Regiment— Colonel, A. J. Morrison; 
assigned first to Briggs' Brigade, Sumner's Corps, and 
next to the First Vermont Brigade (General Brooks), 
Second Division, Sixth Army Corps. 

Twenty-seventh Regiment — Colonel, George W. 
Mindil; assigned to Casey's Division and next to 
Second Brigade, First Division, Ninth Army Corps. 

Twenty-eighth Regiment— Colonel, Moses N. Wise- 
well ; assigned to First Brigade, Third Division, Sec- 
ond Army Corps. 

Twenty-ninth Regiment— Colonel, Edwin F. Apple- 
gate ; assigned to various duties around Washington, 
and finally to Third Brigade, First Division, First 
Army Corps. 

Thirtieth Regiment— Colonel, Alexander E. Donald. 


son, and Thirty-first Regiment, Colonel A. P. Berthoud, 
brigaded with the Twenty-second and Twenty-ninth 
Regiments, as part of the Third Brigade, First Divis- 
ion, First Army Corps. 

With the addition of these troops the number of men 
contributed to the Government reached the very 
respectable figure of twenty-five thousand two hun- 
dred and fifty-seven, all volunteers, of whom twenty- 
three thousand one hundred and sixteen were accred- 
ited to the Army of the Potomac. 

These new^ regiments, put right into the field with 
veterans who had served under McClellan on the Pen- 
insula campaign and at Antietam, rendered valuable and 
efificient service under Burnside at the dreadful slaughter 
of Fredericksburg, with Hooker at the ill-fated battle 
of Chancellorsville, and with Sedgewick at Marye's 
Heights and Salem Church. They passed through all 
the rugged and trying experiences to be found in 
active campaigning in the immediate presence of the 
enemy, and had just become fully inured to the hard- 
ships and trials of a soldier's life when their term of 
service expired. At about the same time the terms of 
service of a large number of two years troops also 
expired, and with this large depletion, after the battle of 
Chancellorsville, the Army of the Potomac w^as weak- 
ened to a considerable extent. The casualties which 
the older three year regiments had sustained during 
their severe service, reduced some of them to mere 
skeletons, not a regiment of the original eight in both 
New Jersey brigades numbering more than four hun- 



dred men after the battle of Chancellorsville, while the 
average for all would not be greater than three hundred 
each. The official returns are not accessible for a veri- 
fication of this statement, but the reports of the several 
New Jersey regiments made on the 30th day of June, 
1863, just before the battle of Gettysburg opened, are 
sufficient for the purpose of comparison. The follow- 
ing data, taken from the original rolls at the War 
Department, Washington, and on file at the Adjutant- 
General's office, of this State, at Trenton, shows the 
strength of each New Jersey regiment and battery to 
have been on the date named : 

ENT FOR DUTY JUNE 30, 1863. 





First Regiment Cavalry . 











First Regiment Artillery Battery A... 

First Regiment Artillery Battery B ... 

First Regiment Infantry _ . . 



Second Regiment Infantry 


Third Regiment Infantry. . . 


Fourth Regiment Infantry (Train Guard).. . 
Fourth Reg't Infantry (isl Div. 6th Corps). .. 




Sixth Regiment Infantry 


Seventh Regiment Infantry 

Eighth Regiment Infantry 

Eleventh Ree^iment Infantrv 



Twelfth Regiment Infantry.. 




Fifteenth Regiment Infantry 








The total strength of these commands as it appears 
by the preceding table, compared with the number 
of men furnished by the original muster of each regi- 
ment, will show the great depletion to which they 
had been subjected in their past service. The First 
and Second Brigades had suffered greatly from sick- 
ness brought on by exposure during the Peninsula 
campaign, and when to the casualties thus occasioned 
is added the losses by death, and those killed in 
action or dying from wounds received in battle, with 
the discharges made necessary by disability of vari- 
ous kinds, the percentage of waste during the pre- 
vious two years' experience will be found very large. 

To show the relative condition of the New Jersey 
troops at the beginning of the battle of Gettysburg 
with their entry into the service, the original figures 
of these fifteen commands are here reproduced : 






First Regiment Cavalry 

First Regiment Artillery, Battery A. 
First Regiment Artillery, Battery B. 
First Regiment Infantry 



















Second Regiment Infantry 

Third Regiment Infantry 

Fourth Regiment Infantry 




Fifth Regiment Infantry 


Sixth Regiment Infantry.. 


Seventh Regiment Infantry 


Eighth Regiment Infantrv 


Eleventh Regiment Infantry 

Twelfth Regiment Infantry _ 


Thirteenth Regiment Infantry 

Fifteenth Regiment Infantry 






Out of these ten thousand nine hundred and thirty- 
mne officers and men of New Jersey in the Army of 
the Potomac, mustered into the service at various 
times in 1861-62 to serve for three years or during 
the war, there were reported " Present for duty " on 
June 30th, 1863, but four thousand five hundred and 
five, a loss of about sixty per cent. The number of 
men on special service, and those ''Absent without 
leave " during that period, would account for only a 
small fraction of this percentage, and the record of 
all these organizations will bear the closest scrutiny 
for trying and exhaustive service in campaigning and 
in actual conflict with the enemy. It had not been 
the policy of the State authorities to recruit men to 
fill up the losses in the old regiments, and they were 
continuall}^ being weakened by various causes. 

The men who went to the war in 1861 and 1862, 
were governed by love of country and hatred of the 
heresy of Secession. They were the representatives of 
a principle, and embodied in their service the patriotic 
sentiment of the tmie. No danger was too great, no 
trial too severe, but found them ready and willing to 
undertake its performance, and in the case of hundreds 
of these patriotic men, when their term of service 
expired they reenlisted for the whole war. This was 
the class of men who confronted Lee's army on the 
heights of Gettysburg. They had become used to 
defeat, but they could not be dismayed. Their faith m 
the ultimate success of the cause they espoused never 
wavered, though the rebel arm}^ was devastating the 

Major-Gexeral Joseph Hooker, 

Commander Army of the Potomac. 

Resigned, June 27, 1863. 


loyal State of Pennsylvania. Each report that came to 
their ears of the destructive march of Lee's army 
through the North only nerved these men to a higher 
sense of the responsibilities which devolved upon them, 
and in spite of all the discouragements of the past the 
Army of the Potomac never felt itself better able to 
cope with its old antagonist than on those fateful days 
of July, 1863. 



THE battle of Waterloo put an end to the ambitious 
career of Napoleon the First. Gettysburg de- 
stroyed the hopes of the South for the establish- 
ment of a Confederacy of States. And the South 
was full of hope in 1863. From the commencement of 
hostilities, two years before, the prestige of success — or 
rather that which amounted to the same thing, the 
failure of the National Government to crush out the 
rebellion in the East — was with General Lee and his 
army. The fortunate arrival of reinforcements at the 
first battle of Bull Run stemmed the tide of retreat in 
the southern army, and the advance of these fresh 
arrivals upon the demoralized Federals, turned their 
retreat into a rout and gave the victory to the Con-^ 
federates. The Peninsula campaign resulted in fresh 
laurels for the southern troops, and General Lee's 
audacious advance through the valley, and the mar- 
shalhng of his forces on the field of Manassas, a second 



time at Bull Run driving the Union army within the 
defences of Washington, gave added lustre to his grow- 
ing fame. What feeling of opposition had existed in 
the South toward the schemes of the political leaders 
who had raised the standard of revolt against the 
National authority had been silenced by the victorious 
progress of the Army of Northern Virginia, and when 
the Maryland campaign was inaugurated it received 
the sanction of the Confederate authorities and the 
plaudits of the southern people. There was a general 
belief in the South that Lee's army once in the State of 
Maryland, thousands of sympathizers would flock to 
swell the ranks of the southern forces, and with this 
host of enthusiastic adherents an army of invasion 
could be formed which would compel the Government 
to recognize the Southern Confederacy and treat with 
it for a cessation of hostilities. 

The sorest defeat for the South was not the loss of 
Antietam, it was the knowlege, dearly gained, that the 
people of Maryland were not so demonstratively sym- 
pathetic with the cause of the Confederacy as the 
leaders of public opinion in the South had supposed. 
The successful retreat of General Lee, with his whole 
army, into Virginia, was additional evidence of his 
mihtary ability, and while '' Maryland, my Maryland," 
was lost forever to the South, General Lee's army 
never admitted that Antietam w^as otherwise a sore 
defeat. It was practically a drawn battle, with the 
advantage, if any, on the side of the Army of the 
Potomac. Lee's defence of Fredericksburg Heights in 


the December which followed, and the defeat of the 
Union army with great loss— followed in Ma}^ 1863, 
with his remarkable victory at Chancellorsville— stimu- 
lated the war feeling of the South and awakened an 
enthusiasm such as had never before been witnessed 
there. So intense was the feeling, so confident the 
leaders, that the invasion of the North by the Con- 
federate army was demanded by the press of the South 
and by public opinion. It was known that the term of 
service of many regiments in the Union army was 
about to expire, and the crushing defeats that had 
recently been sustained by the Army of the Potomac 
were not conducive to reenlistment. Besides this, a 
feeling of despondency had settled over the North, the 
faction that had been opposing the war were growing 
bolder in their utterances, and an invasion of the North, 
it was believed, would so excite the fears of these peo- 
ple that extraordinary efforts to arouse public opinion 
in favor of peace at any price would result. With a 
divided public opinion in the North, the southern army 
safely entrenched on northern territory, the actual 
transfer of the seat of war to northern soil must re- 
sult, it Avas believed, in a settlement of the conflict, 
and on terms satisfactory to the South. The invasion 
of Pennsylvania was not for the purpose of receiving 
accessions to the southern army, but to conquer a 
peace. The movement had the sanction of military 
precedent, Avas cordiall}^ indorsed by the Confederate 
authorities, aroused the enthusiasm of the soldiery, and 
stimulated the overweening confidence of the southern 


people to a firm belief in its ultimate success. Armed 
reinforcements and recruits eagerly joined the forces 
of General Lee, and buoyant with hope, exultant and 
confident, the Confederate army left their camps on 
the Rappahannock, while the prayers and fervent 
hopes of a united South bid them God-speed in their 

The temper of the southern army at this time is 
thus tersely expressed by Alfriend : '' The Army of 
Northern Virginia, a compact and puissant force, 
seventy thousand strong, which had never 3^et known 
defeat, instinctiv^ely expected the order for advance 
into the enemy's country. Never was the vioi-ale of 
the army so high, never had it such confidence in its 
own prowess, and in the resources of its great com- 
mander, and never was entrusted to its valor a 
mission so grateful to its desires as that tendered by 
President Davis ' to force the enemy to fight for 
their own Capital and homes.' " 

The Union army on the first of June was posted 
on the north bank of the Rappahannock river, while 
the rebel army was on the south side, mainly concen- 
trated about Fredericksburg. As preUminary to the 
general movement Lee, with strategic skill, began the 
massing of his forces at Culpepper, leaving A. P. 
Hill's division at Fredericksburg to mask the move- 
ment. General Hooker was wary and suspicious, 
and from the nature of the reports brought to him 
by his scouts, he was confident an important move- 
ment was contemplated by Lee. He ordered a 


reconnoissance in force by the Sixth Army Corps, 
Howe's division of which was to cross the Rappa- 
hannock June 5th, while Wright's and Newton's divis- 
ions were to take position on the north bank of the 
river, in support. 

This was to be the initial movement of the Gettys- 
burg campaign on the part of the Union forces, and 
by it the valor of New Jersey troops was once more 
to be tested. The Twenty-sixth Regiment, which 
formed part of Grant's brigade of Howe's division, 
had been mustered into the service on the i8th of 
September, 1862, and its term of service, nine months, 
was about expiring. It had taken part in the two 
previous engagements at Fredericksburg on December 
13th and 14th, 1862, under Burnside, and May 3rd, 
1863, under Hooker, and also in the engagement at 
Salem Church on May 4th, 1863, in which last battle 
the command sustained a loss of 124 — killed, wounded 
and missing. 

The point at which the crossing of the Rappa- 
hannock was to be made Avas known as " Franklin's 
Crossing," three miles below the town of Fredericks- 
burg. General A. P. Hill, the Confederate com- 
mander, had constructed a line of earth-works along 
the south bank of the river which were occupied by 
a strong force, and when Howe's division reached the 
stream the engineer corps were preparing to lay the 
pontoons over which the command was to cross. 
It was five o'clock in the evening when the column 
reached the river bank, and artillery was at once 


posted in a commanding position to sweep the open 
plain between the enemy's works and the woods 
beyond. While these preparations were being made 
on the north side of the river, the enemy sent forth 
a strong reinforcement to the rifle-pits. As they 
deployed out of the woods and moved across the plain 
to the works near the river bank, the Union artillery 
opened fiercely upon them, but without repelling 
their advance. The fire from their works was fierce 
and accurate, and it soon became evident that noth- 
ing short of a direct assault could force them from 
their position. The efforts of the engineer corps to 
launch their boats were futile, and General Howe 
organized a storming column, consisting of the Fifth 
Vermont and Twenty-sixth New Jersey regiments, 
with instructions to cross the river in boats and 
drive the enemy from the rifle-pits. General Howe 
sent for Lieutenant-Colonel Martindale, then in com- 
mand of the Twenty-sixth, and as he gave him the 
instructions he was to follow complimented him and 
his command very highly, saying, '' In a few days 
your term of service will be over and you will 
return home to your friends with an untarnished 
reputation for gallantry and covered with glory." 
The column formed within seventy-five yards of the 
river bank, the Fifth Vermont on the right, the 
Twenty-sixth on the left, and under a severe fire from 
the enemy. The artillery ceased firing, the advance 
was begun, the Fifth Vermont moved rapidly down 
a narrow gulch to the river bank, while the Twenty- 


sixth went down a road cut parallel with the river 
and fully exposed to the enemy's fire. The Twenty- 
sixth rushed gallantly down, crossed the narrow 
margin of the flats that bordered the river, where 
they found that the engineers had launched but 
seven of the boats. The regiment was now in 
a perilous position. Crowded together in a small 
space at the river bank, they were exposed to a 
galling and murderous fire, and as the engineers 
boldly rushed to the river to aid in launching the 
rest of the boats seA^eral of their number were 
killed and wounded. To remain inactive now was 
suicide. Captain Samuel U. Dodd, of Company H, 
being on the right of the line, sprang into the first 
boat, foUow^ed by Lieutenant Dodd and as many of 
his men as could find room in it, and pushed out 
in the stream. Ordering his men to protect them- 
selves below the gunwales of the boat. Captain Dodd 
directed its course to the opposite bank. He was a 
man of large stature, a conspicuous mark for the 
enemy's fire, and as the boat reached the middle of 
the river he received a mortal wound, dying the 
next day. Immediately following came a boat with 
the Major of the Fifth Vermont and a detachment 
from that regiment, next in order being Captain 
Stephen C. Fordham and Captain Peter F. Rogers 
with several men of the Twenty-sixth. Major William 
VV. Morris, with men from several companies, filled 
another boat, and Captain Samuel H. Pemberton, in 
charge of the fourth boat, followed by three other 



boats filled with men of the Twenty-sixth, moved boldly 
to the opposite side. Lieutenant-Colonel Martindale 
superintended the launching of the other boats, and 
the men of Captains Hunkele, Mclntee, Harrison, 
Sears and Pearson's companies did herculean work 
in dragging the immense frames to the river. It 
was nearly seven o'clock when the boats reached the 
opposite bank and, without waiting for the whole 
command to get over, a movement upon the works 
was at once begun. There was an eager rivalry 
between the Verm outers and Jersey men as to which 
should gain the rifle-pits first. Major Morris, with a 
portion of the Twenty-sixth, charged rapidly up to 
the enemy's Hues, as did the Fifth Vermont. The 
rebels saw that retreat across the plain was hopeless. 
The Sixth Corps artillery commanded the whole posi- 
tion between them and the woods beyond, and they 
surrendered. Major Morris, without waiting to note 
how many prisoners were captured, at once deployed 
his men as skirmishers along the Bowling Green 
road. Lieutenant-Colonel Martindale brought the rest 
of the regiment up as soon as they had crossed over 
and they were posted as pickets for the rest of the 
night. The action was spirited, brave and gallant, 
and to the Twenty-sixth is- undoubtedly due the 
honor of being first in the enemy's works, though 
the report of Colonel Grant seeks to give that credit 
to the Fifth Vermont, who turned in to him all the 
prisoners taken. The casualties in the Twenty-sixth 
were 2 killed and 17 wounded, as follows: 




Company H — Captain, Samuel U. Dodd. 
" I — Private, Joseph H. Ainsworth. 


Company B— Corporal, William H. Brown ; 
Privates, William Small, William 
Delaney, Martin V. B. Sandford, 
D wight Stent, Henry L. Johnson. 

C — Robert Wallace. 

D — William Davis, David Mintonge. 

E — Henry Berner. 

F — Corporal, William Egbertson. 

G — Sergeant, George S. Force. 

H — David F. Horton. 

I — Joseph De Camp, George W. 
Griffin, Horace Goble. 

K — Aaron G. Mead. 

The following is the official report of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Martindale, concerning the action of the regi- 
ment : 

Headquarters 26th New Jersey Volunteers, ) 
In the Field near Fredericksburg, Va., V 

June 8th, 1863. ) 

Lieutenant C. H. Forbes, Assistant Adjntant-Gcneral : 

Sir — Of the part taken by this regiment in the recent 
operations across the Rappahannock, a report of which 
I am desired to forward, I have the honor to state as 
follows : 


On the afternoon of the 5th instant the regiment was 
ordered to march from its camp near White Oak 
Church and move with the brigade toward Fredericks- 
burg. Arriving near the old crossing point (Frank- 
lin's), next below the town, it was formed in line of 
battle under fire of the enemy's riflemen, who were 
posted in earth-works near the south bank. Here we 
suffered our first loss in killed and wounded. Imme- 
diately afterward the order was given to charge down 
the road to the river, under cover of a heavy fire from 
our artillery, push across the pontoons and carry the 
line of rifle-pits occupied by the enemy. This order 
was executed at once, in a spirited manner, under a 
galling fire from the enemy's earth-works. This regi- 
ment and the Fifth Vermont had been ordered to cross 
the river together, but the right of the Twenty-sixth 
New Jersey having reached the river bank a little in 
advance, its first two companies were the first to enter 
the boats, cross over and charge up the opposite bank. 
A portion of our right company (H) was the first of our 
regiment to enter the enemy's intrenchments, which 
they did at the same moment with the Fifth Vermont, 
capturing a considerable number of prisoners. A line 
of skirmishers was immediately pushed out to the front, 
and the whole regiment was deployed in and beyond 
the Bowhng Green road until the morning of the 6th 
instant, when it was relieved, placed in line of battle, 
resting upon Deep Run, and so contmued until the 
evening of the 7th, when the regiment was ordered 
back to the left bank of the Rappahannock. Our 


casualties were 2 killed and 17 wounded. Among the 
killed I am deeply grieved to be compelled to mention 
Captain Samuel U. Dodd, of Company H, who fell a 
sacrifice to his gallant and conscientious devotion to 
duty while bravely leading his company in the first 
boat across the river. The loss to his company and 
regiment is irreparable, but the good influence of his 
noble example and character will endure for all time. 

It gives me particular pleasure to call your attention 
to the fidelity and good conduct of Major Morris, in 
every requirement of duty, both in crossing and form- 
ing upon the opposite bank, and particularly upon the 
trying and exhausting duty of the skirmish line. 

Of the line ofihcers, while many are justly entitled to 
great praise for meritorious conduct, I desire to call 
your particular attention to the conspicuous gallantry 
and spirited conduct of Captain Stephen C. Fordham, 
of Company A, who distinguished himself both in the 
attack upon the enemy's intrenchments and the advance 
to the extreme front of the line of skirmishers. Also to 
that of Lieutenant John Dodd, of^Company H, who 
distinguished himself in like manner, and was the first 
man of either regiment to plant his foot upon shore in 
crossing the river. 

I have the honor to be. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 


Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding Regiment. 

The conspicuous gallantry of Captain Fordham is 
well illustrated by the following incident : 

Capt. Samuel Uzal Dodd, 

Co. H, 26th N. J. Vols., Inf. 

{From a War-tijiie Photograph.) 


When the boat containmg- Major Morris and his men 
had reached within a few feet of the river bank Captain 
Fordham, who had accompanied a part of the regiment 
over in a previous boat, stepped from under the bank 
of the river and asked what the command should next 
do? The Major responded, "Wait, Captain, until I 
land.'' Just at that moment the Major of the Fifth 
Vermont, hearing- Captain Fordham's call for orders, 
started up the road in the direction of the enemy's 
works. Captain Fordham saw the movement, and tak- 
ing one man with him, started off to get in advance of 
the Vermonter, and as they came abreast of each other 
both moved rapidly for the enemy's position. This 
action nerved the rest to follow his example, and with- 
out waitmg for the whole regiment to cross they 
started on a run and all together charged the position. 
Lieutenant Rochus Heinisch, of Company "A," Cor- 
porals William H. Brown and W. H. Whittemore, 
Company "B," were first into the enemy's works. 
Corporal Brown was wounded. 

The charge of the Twenty-sixth was gallantly per- 
formed and has received the highest words of praise, 
but Colonel Grant, commanding the brigade, in his 
report of the affair, seeks to award the credit to the 
Fifth Vermont as being the first to enter the works. 
He says: "We left camp yesterday, soon after noon, 
and marched to the river, a distance of about five miles. 
The porftoons were on the ground ready to be taken 
down the bank and thrown across the river. The 
rebels had constructed rifle-pits in front of and com- 


manding the point where the bridges were to be 
placed. These rifle-pits were occupied by rebel infantry. 
As soon as the artillery could be got into position it 
opened a terrific fire upon the rifle-pits. It had but 
little effect, however, except to keep back reinforce- 
ments that were coming to the assistance of those 
already in the works. But very few of those in the pits 
were injured by the artillery fire. They managed to 
keep up a galling fire upon the engineers that attempted 
to construct the bridges. It was determined to drive 
the rebels from the rifle-pits. The Fifth Vermont, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lewis, and Twenty-sixth New 
Jersey, Lieutenant-Colonel Martindale, were ordered 
forward for that purpose. They rushed gallantly down 
the bank and, with the assistance of the engineers, and 
under a galling fire from the rifle-pits, they launched 
the pontoon boats into the stream, jumped into them 
and rowed across and landed upon the south bank. 
But a few companies of the Fifth had crossed when 
they sprang up the bank, and with shouts charged the 
rifle-pits, driving the enemy from them in great con- 
fusion, taking many of them prisoners. The Twenty- 
sixth New Jersey came gallantly to the support of the 
Fifth and did well, but it is believed the Fifth cleared 
the rifle-pits." 

This is faint justice from a brigade com.mander for a 
gallant and most heroic service, and the evident intent 
to award the chief credit to the Fifth Vermont for a 
service performed by the Twenty-sixth New Jersey in 
conjunction with them, is not the work of a broad or 



generous disposition. An eye-witness of the fight, one 
of the Fiftieth Regiment, New York Volunteers, says 
of it: 

" General Howe at once ordered the Twenty-sixth 
New Jersey to cross and storm the pits, and most 
gallantly and fearlessly did they go in. The rebels 
stuck to their position until those fearless Jerseymen 
set foot on the south side of the river, which was about 
half-past six o'clock, when, notwithstanding the shower 
of canister sent after them, they fled before the impetu- 
ous charge of those gallant Jersey Blues ; indeed, they 
could not well leave before, lor our cannon completely 
swept the plain and their pits was by far the safest place 
for them. Skirmishers were immediately deployed and 
soon brought in sixty or seventy prisoners, belonging 
principally to Florida regiments. My own position 
was such that I could see the whole affair. Our regi- 
ment suffered considerably — we lost 28 killed— many in 
our brigade who were killed or wounded are within a 
few days of the expiration of their terms of service ; the 
same is true, as I am informed, of the Twenty -sixth 
New Jersey, but still neither the one or the other 
faltered in the least in going forward in the performance 
of their dudes, and they deserve and should receive 
honor from all men." 


lee's plan of campaign— disposition of his forces 
— general hooker mystified but not deceived 

— THE cavalry fight AT BRANDY STATION — THE 

WHETHER General Lee had forebodings of dis- 
aster when making his plans for an offensive 
campaign will, perhaps never be known, but 
certain it is that while everybody about him, and 
public feeling in the South, was full of confidence and 
hope, he was depressed in spirits. He evidently 
realized that the future of the Southern Confederacy 
depended upon the success of his operations. The 
situation elsewhere, from the southern point of view, 
was not the most encouraging. General Grant was 
hammering aAvay at Vicksburg and the possibilities of 
its fall were alarming. General Longstreet thus sum- 
marizes the situation : 

" While General Lee was reorganizing his army he 
was also arranging the new campaign. Grant had laid 
siege to Vicksburg, and Johnston was concentrating at 
Jackson to drive him away. Rosecrans was in Tennes- 
see and Bragg was in front of him. The force Johnston 
was concentrating at Jackson gave us no hope that he 

JIajor William \V. Morris, 

26th Reg:t. N, J. Vols., Inf. 

{,From a War-time Photograph.) 



would have sufficient strength to make any impression 
upon Grant, and even if he could, Grant was in position 
to reinforce rapidly and could supply his army with 
greater facility. Vicksburg was doomed unless we 
could offer relief by a strategic move. I proposed to 
send a force through East Tennessee to join Bragg, and 
also to have Johnston sent to join him, thus concentrat- 
ing a large force to move against Rosecrans, crush out 
his army and march against Cincinnati. That, 1 
thought, was the only way ^ve had to relieve Vicksburg. 
General Lee admitted the force of my proposition, but 
finally stated that he preferred to organize a campaign 
into Maryland and Pennsylvania, hoping thereby to 
draw the Federal troops from the southern points they 
occupied. After discussing the matter with him for 
several days I found his mind was made up not to 
allow any of his troops to go west. I then accepted 
his proposition to make a campaign into Pennsylvania, 
provided it should be offensive in strategy but defensive 
in tactics, forcing the Federal army to give us battle 
when we were in strong position and ready to receive 

A successful invasion of Pennsylvania, and the defeat 
of the northern army, were the primary objects of the 
campaign. These would not alone counterbalance the 
effect that the fall of Vicksburg would have upon the 
southern mind, it would give the representatives of the 
South in foreign countries a vantage ground in securing 
the recognition of the Confederacy, which meant an 
open market in which to purchase supplies and muni- 


tions of war, and, perhaps, brin^ about the intervention 
of the great powers for a cessation of hostilities ; peace- 
ably if possible, by armed support if necessary. Eng- 
land and France were only awaiting an opportunity to 
extend a helping hand to the South. A victory for 
General Lee on northern soil would be all-sufficient. 
The plan of campaign was prepared, the preliminary 
movements had been made. General Lee had divided 
his army into three parts : Hill was left at Fredericks- 
burg, Longstreet and Ewell moved toward Culpepper, 
from which point Ewell was to proceed to the Shenan- 
doah Valley to clear the way for the balance of the 
army to follow. On the seventh of June General Lee's 
cavalry moved to the Rappahannock river, their 
artillery being posted so as to cover the crossing at 
Beverly Ford. On this same day General Wright's 
division, of the Sixth Corps, relieved the troops of 
Howe's division, at Franklin's Crossing, below Fred- 
ericksburg, Hooker thus keeping up a show of force 
sufficient to detain Hill, while Lee ordered Longstreet 
and Ewell to halt near the Rapidan river long enough 
to ascertain what the Union Commander's intentions 
were, and to be in supporting distance of Hill, if 
wanted. On the eighth of June Hooker directed 
Pleasonton — Avho had been placed in command of all 
the cavalry — to make a reconnoissance in the direction 
of Culpepper for the purpose of ascertaining the possible 
plans of the enemy. The resistance made by General 
Hill at Fredericksburg was obstinate enough to con- 
vince Hooker that the enemy were in strong force at 



that point, but his suspicions were not allayed. He 
believed that some movement of great importance was 
contemplated by Lee, and that movement, he rightly 
divined, was an invasion of the North. 

The Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac 
comprised three divisions, commanded as follows : 
First Division, General John Buford ; Second Divis- 
ion, Colonel A. N. Dufhe ; Third Division, General 
D. McM. Gregg, and a Regular Cavalry Reserve 
with six batteries. For the purpose of this recon- 
noissance the corps was divided into two wings, the 
right comprising the First Cavalry Division and the 
Reserve Brigade, supported by a detachment of 
infantry under the command of General Ames, of 
the Eleventh Corps, the wing being commanded by 
General Buford. The left wing comprised the 
Second and Third Divisions of cavalry, with General 
D. A. Russell's detachment of infantry from the 
Sixth Corps, the whole commanded by General 
Gregg. General Pleasonton made his headquarters 
with Buford's wing. On the afternoon of the eighth 
of July the corps moved out on their mission, the 
right wing halting near Beverly Ford and the left 
wing at Kelly's Ford, on the Rappahannock. So 
far the advance toward Culpepper had progressed 
satisfactorily, but the next movement lead to a con- 
flict where none was anticipated, the separated 
wings of Pleasonton having to encounter Stuart's 
whole force and engage him in separate conflict. 
General Buford crossed the river early on the ninth 


and met the enemy between the Ford and Brandy 
Station, but was compelled to retire by reason of 
the great superiority of numbers against which he 
was pitted. General Gregg crossed the river at 
Kelly's Ford between fiye and six o'clock in the 
morning and was moving toward Stevensburg, at 
which point he was directed to establish the left of 
his line, the infantry detachment under General 
Russell being ordered to move direct to Brandy 
Station. Gregg heard the firing of Buford's men, 
and after a march of five miles overtook Dufhe's 
division, whose advance had reached Stevensburg 
without meeting the enemy, and he ordered them to 
move at once upon Brandy Station, taking the same 
road as the Third Division. When the head of 
Gregg's division reached the Station the enemy were 
there in great force, having only a short time before 
repulsed the First Division. In the charge of the 
Third Division upon Stuart's forces the First New 
Jersey Cavalry carried off the honors of the day for 
impetuous dash and consummate skill. Of the heroic 
part taken by this command in this, the first great 
cavalry fight of the war, no improvement can be 
made upon the realistic description given by Chap- 
lain Pyne, in his '' History of the First New Jersey 
Cavalry." He says : 

'' It was on the eighth of June that Gregg's divis- 
ion broke camp at Warrenton Junction, to march to 
Kelly's Ford. Arriving there after nightfall the men, 
formed in column of battalions, holding their horses 



during the night, bivouacked without fires or sound 
of bugles. In consequence of these and other pre- 
cautions, DufBe's division was well on the road to 
Stevensburg, and Gregg moving toward Brandy 
Station, before the rebels had taken the alarm. 
Capturing or cutting off the videttes, Captain Yorke 
led the advance around the position of the rebel 
cavalry, and debouched through the woods beyond 
Brandy Station, while the enemy was still between 
that place and the Rappahannock river. As Jones' 
brigade hastily formed to receive us, the First New 
Jersey Cavalry dashed out of the woods, charging 
down among them. Without even an attempt to 
charge, the rebel line broke in confusion ; and driv- 
ing them back, pell-mell, the regiment pressed upon 
their rear. With a hundred and fifty prisoners, 
taken by a body of only two hundred and fifty -nine 
enlisted men, the regiment then rallied and re-formed 
for the greater work before them. 

" Nearly half a mile apart, on two eminences of a 
continuous line of hill, stood a couple of countr}^ 
houses, surrounded by their customary farm buildings 
and enclosures, though both had been dilapidated by 
the frequent presence of the soldiery of both armies. 
At the one facing the right of the line General 
Stuart had estabhshed his headquarters, and each of 
them was protected by a battery of horse artillery. 
Leaving the First Pennsylvania Regiment to support 
his battery, Wyndham formed the First Jersey for 
a charge. Lieutenant-Colonel Broderick was at its 

42 ^V^ f^ J ERSE Y TROOPS 

head, and in column of battalions it advanced, with 
a steady trot, its line more accurate than ever on 
parade. As it passed over the difficult ground in 
the vicinity of the railroad, there was danger of its 
front being compressed by the narroAvness of the 
defile. Without a pause, Hobensack led the left 
squadron of the first line down the steep bank of 
the cutting and up the other side — a steep descent 
and rise of nine feet each way, taken by the whole 
body without a waver or hesitation. While the 
right squadrons of the other battalions followed 
Broderick against Stuart's headquarters, the left 
wings, under Lucas and Malsbury, accompanied 
Hobensack and dashed at the hill on which stood 
the other battery. So rapid was the advance of 
both columns that the batteries of the enemy endeav- 
ored in vain to get range upon them ; w^hile our 
own guns, admirably directed by Martin and his 
officers, played with terrible effect upon the station- 
ary rebel line. With a ringing cheer Broderick rode 
up the gentle ascent that led to Stuart's headquar- 
ters, the men gripping hard their sabres, and the 
horses taking ravines and ditches in their stride. As 
the rebels poured in a random and ineffectual volley, 
the troopers of the First Jersey were among them, 
riding over one gun, breaking to pieces the brigade 
in front of them and forcing the enemy in confusion 
down the opposite slope of the hill. Stuart's head- 
quarters were in our hands, and his favorite regi- 
ment in flight before us. At the same time, far 

Colonel Percy WyxNdham, 

ist N. J. Cav, 
iJFrom a War-time Photograph.) 



away at Beverly Ford, were heard the guns of 
Buford, as Pleasonton hurled his division, in column 
of regiments, against the shaken enemy. By the 
same orderly who carried off Stuart's official papers, 
Wyndham ordered up a section of his battery and 
the regiment of Pennsylvanians. Leaving the artil- 
lery to the support of the First Maryland, the noble 
Pennsylvanians came to the attack. It was time that 
they did so ; for a fresh brigade of rebels w^as 
charging the hundred men of Broderick. Gallantly 
did the Lieutenant-Colonel meet the charge. As the 
enemy advanced, down against them rode our men : 
Broderick and his adjutant in front. Hart, Wynkoop, 
Cox, Jemison, Harper, Sawyer, Brooks and Hughes, 
all in their places, leading their respective men. 
With a crash, in w^ent the little band of Jerseymen 
into the leading rebel regiment, the impetus of the 
attack scattering the faltering enemy in confusion 
right and left. Through the proud Twelfth Vir- 
ginia they then rode, with no check to their head- 
long onset; and with dripping sabres and panting 
steeds emerged into the field beyond. No longer in 
line of battle, fighting hand to hand with small 
parties of the enemy, and with many a w^ounded 
horse sinking to the earth, they met a third regi- 
ment of the rebels, no longer faltering before an 
unbroken enemy, but rushing eagerly upon the scat- 
tered groups of combatants. Even in this emergency 
the confidence of the men was not shaken in their 
leaders. Against that sw^arm of opposers each indi- 


vidual officer opposed himself, with such men as 
collected around him ; and slowly fighting, breaking 
the enemy with themselves into bands of indepen- 
dent combatants, the Jerseymen fell back up the 
bloody hillside. Not a man but had his own story 
of the fight to tell. Kitchen, left alone for a moment, 
was ridden at by two of the rebels. As one was 
disabled by his sabre, he spurred his horse against 
the other. As the animal bounded beneath the goad 
a bullet penetrated his brain, and, throwing his rider 
twenty feet beyond him, the steed, all four feet in 
the air, plunged headlong to the earth. As the 
adjutant, trembling from the fall, slowly recovered 
his senses, he saw another rebel riding at him. 
Creeping behind the body of his dead horse, he 
rested his revolver on the carcass to give steadiness 
to his aim, and frightening off his enemy, managed 
to escape to the neighborhood of the guns and catch 
a riderless horse to carry him from the field. 

'' In the middle of the fight Broderick's horse fell 
dead beneath him. Instantly his young orderly bugler, 
James Wood, sprang to the earth and remounted him. 
While the bugler himself sought for another horse, a 
rebel trooper rode at him with an order to surrender. 
As Wood was taken to the rear, he came upon a carbine 
lying upon the ground. Seizing it and leveling it at 
his captor, he forced the man to change places with 
him ; and thus, with an enspty weapon, repossessed 
himself of arms and horse, together with a prisoner. 
Jemison, on fo.ot and alone, was chased around the 



house upon the hill, when he saw Broderick again 
unhorsed in the midst of a crowd of enemies, and 
Sawyer riding to the rescue. At the moment when 
Jemison was giving himself up for lost, he saw his 
pursuers stop, wheel and hurry away, and running 
himself around the corner, he beheld Taylor, sword in 
hand, leading the charge of the Pennsylvanians. 
Around the base of the hill the sturdy regiment swept 
along, driving the enemy before it, and making a com- 
plete circuit of the position, returned again toward 
Brandy Station. 

" In the mean time, the left wing of the regiment had 
directed its efforts upon the other battery of the rebels. 
Keeping to the trot, their unbroken ranks moved 
steadily against the hill, on the top of which stood the 
cannoneers and a few horsemen observing their 
approach. As they came nearer, all these men disap- 
peared except one, who maintained his position ; and 
as they came within two hundred yards of the summit, 
this man lifted his hat, beckoning with it to those in the 
rear. In one moment the whole hillside was black with 
rebel cavalry, charging down as foragers, pistol and 
carbine in hand. Hobensack glanced along his 
squadron. Not a man was out of place, and every 
horse was taking the gallop without a blunder or over- 
rush of speed. At the sight of this united band of 
enemies, the confused rebel crowd hesitated and shook. 
With an ill-directed, futile volley, they began to break 
away, and the next moment, a shrieking mass of fugi- 
tives, they were flying before the sabres of our men. 


The rebel battery of four guns was left with but two 
men near it, and with their eyes fixed upon it our 
officers pressed upon the fugitives. When within a 
hundred yards of the guns, and when looking over the 
hill, Lucas could see yet another brigade coming in the 
distance to reinforce the broken enemy, an ejaculation 
from Hobensack caused him to turn his eyes to his own 
rear. There was the main body of the force that had 
broken the right wing coming into full line of battle 
upon their rear. 

'' ' Fours, left-about, wheel ! ' was the instant order. 
' Boys, there's a good many of them, but we must cut 
through. Charge ! ' and obliquely against their line 
rushed down the Jersey troopers. 

'' Enthusiasm and desperation supplied the place of 
numbers, and cutting their way out, the little band 
opened a path toward the section of our battery. 
Three times was the guidon of Company E taken by 
the enemy. Twice it was retaken by our men, and the 
third time, when all seemed desperate, a little troop 
of the First Pennsylvania cut through the enemy and 
brought off the flag in safety. Once the rebels who 
hung upon the rear attempted to charge our retiring 
men, but the Avheel of the rear division sufficed to check 
their assault, and the left wing of the Jersey reached 
Clark's two guns, annoyed only by the revolvers of the 

" Under cover of the fire of the artillery, and assisted 
by the charge of the First Pensylvania, Hart had suc- 
ceeded in bringing off the remnant of the right wing. 


He was the senior officer of that half of the regiment. 
Broderick was dying- in the enemy's hands ; Shelmire 
lay dead across the body of a rebel ; Sawyer and Hyde 
Crocker were prisoners ; Lieutenant Brooks was dis- 
abled by a sabre stroke on his right arm ; Wyndham 
himself had just received a bullet in his leg. Men and 
horses had been fighting for over three hours, and 
were now utterly exhausted. Duffie was in line of 
battle two miles and a-half to the rear, but there was 
no support upon the field. Kilpatrick's brigade, which 
had charged on our right and rear, had beaten the 
rebels opposed to it, the First Maine bearing off a 
battle-flag, but it was now formed on our flank, some 
distance from the field, to cover us from being entirely 
cut off. The enemy were indeed terribly demoralized, 
and the charge of a dozen of our men again and again 
routed a hundixd of the rebels ; but now there were 
not a dozen horses that could charge — not a man who 
could shout above a whisper. The guns were across a 
ditch, whicji rendered their removal very difficult, and 
it was their fire which kept the rebels from crossing 
the hills to charge against us. So, with a desperate 
hope that Duffie might come up after all, our worn- 
out troopers stood by the gallant cannoneers of the 
Sixth New York (Martin's, formerly BramhaU's) Inde- 
pendent Battery— New Yorkers b}^ commission, but 
Jerseymen of Rahway in their origin. 

" Presently the apprehended moment came, and the 
last reserves of the rebels, fresh and strong, poured 
down on three sides upon the exhausted little knot 


of Jersey troopers. While cavalry fought hand to 
hand across the guns, the artillerymen continued 
steadily serving their pieces and delivering their fire 
at the enemy upon the hill. Time after time, as a 
rebel trooper would strike at a cannoneer, he would 
dodge beneath a horse or gun-carriage, and coming 
up on the other side, discharge his revolver at his 
assailant and spring once more to his work. At 
length, from mere exhaustion, Hart, Hobehsack and 
Beekman, with their comrades, were forced back a 
little way from the guns, and while they were form- 
ing the men afresh the rebels rode again upon the 

'' As one of the gunners was ramming home a 
charge, a rebel officer cut him down with three 
successive sabre strokes. Then, springing from his 
horse, he Avheeled the piece tow^ard our troopers, 
not fifty yards away. Hobensack turned to Hart, 
stretched out his hand, and said : ' We must shut our 
eyes and take it. Good-bye ! ' and clasping each 
other's hands they awaited for their death. The 
roar of the piece thundered out, and the smoke 
wrapped them in its folds, but the charge ffew harm- 
lessly over their heads. The piece had been elevated 
against the hill, and the rebels had not thought of 
changing its angle. They were so savage at the 
harmlessness of the discharge that they actually 
advanced half-way toward our men, but beyond that 
they dared not come, and the Jersey regiment 
marched calmly off the field without an effort being 
made to pursue them. 



" No other comment can be needed to tell the 
impression made by them upon the rebels. If there 
had been live hundred fresh men upon the field they 
might have swept the whole rebel cavalry force 
into the Rappahannock river. 

*' Of the three senior officers on the field, Wynd- 
ham received a ball in the leg, which unfitted him 
for months for active service, and" Broderick and 
Shelmire never came off the field alive. As is fre- 
quently the case in cavalry combats, but little 
quarter w^as asked or given. Men fought as long 
as they could, and then fell beneath the sabre or 
pistol, the loss of the enemy almost trebling that 
of the National troopers. 

" The name and character of Colonel Wyndham 
are known throughout the country ; Broderick and 
Shelmire were known to few beyond their own 
immediate sphere of duty. Within that sphere they 
were valued, and their loss was severely felt." 

General Gregg, in his report of the fight, says : 
*' Coming thus upon the enemy, and having at hand 
only the Third Division (total strength 2,400), I had 
either to decline the fight in the face of the enemy or 
throw upon him at once the entire division. Not 
doubting but that the Second Division w^as near, and 
delay not being admissible, I directed the commanders 
of my advance brigade to charge the enemy formed in 
columns about Brandy House. The whole brigade 
charged with drawn sabres, fell upon the masses of the 
enemv, and after a brief but severe contest, drove them 

5 2 ^'E \V JERSEY 7 7v' O OP S 

back, killing and wounding many and taking a large 
number of prisoners. Other columns of the enemy- 
coming up charged this brigade before it could reform 
and it was driven back. Seeing this, I ordered the 
First Brigade to charge the enemy upon the right. 
This brigade came forth gallantly through the open 
fields, dashed upon the enemy, drove him away and 
occupied the hill. Now that my entire division was 
engaged, the fight was everywhere most fierce. Fresh 
columns of the enemy arriving upon the ground 
received the vigorous charges of my regiments, and 
under the heavy blows of our sabres were in every 
instance driven back. Martin's battery of horse artil- 
lery, divided between the two brigades, poured load 
after load of canister upon the rebel regiments. 
Assailed on all sides, the men stood to the guns nobly. 
Thus, for an hour and a-half, was the contest continued, 
not in skirmishing but in determined charges. The 
contest was too unequal to be longer continued. The 
Second Division had not come up, there was no 
support at hand and the enemy's number were three 
times my own. I ordered the withdrawal of my 
brigades. In good order they left the field, the enemy 
not choosing to follow. 

•5f ^ ^ ^ vf * * 

'' The Third Division behaved nobly, and where 
every officer and man did his duty it is difficult to par- 
ticularize. I would, however, mention Colonel Percy 
Wyndham, First New Jersey Cavalry, commanding 
Second Brigade, and Colonel Judson Kilpatrick, 

Major-General H. Judson Kilpatrick. 
Brigadier-General Commanding Cavalry Brigade. 



Second New York, commanding First Brigade, who 
gallantly led their brigades to the charge, and through- 
out the entire engagement handled them with consum- 
mate skill. Colonel Wyndham, although wounded, 
remained on the field and covered with a portion of 
his command the withdrawal of the division. Captain 
J. W. Martin, commanding Sixth Ncav York Battery 
of Horse Artillery, did most excellent service. His 
sections were charged by the enemy's regiments on all 
sides. Two of his pieces disabled and one serviceable 
fell into the hands of the enemy, but not until twenty- 
one of his men were cut down, fighting stubbornly, 
and nearly all of the horses killed. Although the loss 
of these pieces is to be regretted, still the magnificent 
defense of them establishes in the highest degree the 
soldierly character of the officers and men of the bat- 
tery. The serviceable gun was spiked before the 
enemy got it." 

It will be noticed that the men so honorably men- 
tioned. Colonel Wyndhan, Colonel Kilpatrick, and the 
men of the Sixth New York Battery, were all Jersey- 
men. The latter command, while credited to New 
York, was raised almost wholly within the city of 
Rahway, this State. Of thirty-six men who went into 
the fight but six came out safely, and every one 
received some wound that he will carry through life. 
The charge by the First New Jersey was led by Colo- 
nel Wyndham in person, aided by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Broderick. At the first onset the enemy were driven 
from their guns, the support coming up were met and 


in a few minutes were driven back. Reinforced, it 
returned and was again repulsed. 

The rebels were terribly punished. By their own 
confession they lost many more than their adversaries, 
and in the First New Jersey almost every soldier must 
have killed his man. Sergeant Craig, of Company K, 
is credited with three ; Slate, of the same company, 
had several hand-to-hand combats with the enemy, 
and the instances of individual bravery and pluck Avere 
numerous. Every soldier had an exciting story to 
tell, and Adjutant Kitchen, who was in the thickest of 
the fray, thus describes what befell himself: 

'' The crowd with whom Broderick was engaged 
was a little distance from me, and I had just wheeled 
to ride up to his help when two fellows put at me. 
The first one fired at me and missed ; before he could 
again cock his revolver I succeeded in closing with 
him. My sabre took him just in the neck, and must 
have cut the jugular. The blood gushed out in a 
black looking stream ; he gave a horrible yell and fell 
over the side of his horse, which galloped away. Then 
I gathered up my reins, spurred my horse, and Avent 
at the other one. I was riding the old black horse 
that used to belong to the signal sergeant, and it was 
in fine condition. As I drove in the spurs it gave a 
leap high in the air. That plunge saved my Hfe. The 
rebel had a steady aim at me ; but the ball went 
through the black horse's brain. His feet never 
touched ground again. With a terrible convulsive 
contraction of all his muscles, the black turned over in 



the air, and fell on his head and side stone dead, pitch- 
ing me twenty feet. I lighted on my pistol, the butt 
forcing itself far into my side. My sabre sprang out 
of my hand, and I lay, with arms and legs abroad, 
stretched out like a dead man. Everybody had some- 
thing else to do than to attend to me, and there I lay 
where I had fallen. 

'' It seemed to me to have been an age before I 
began painfully to come to myself ; but it could not 
have been many minutes. Every nerve was shaking ; 
there was a terrible pain in my head, and a numbness 
through my side w^hich was even worse. Fighting 
was still going on around me, and my first impulse 
was to get hold of my sword. I crawled to it, and 
sank down as I grasped it once more. That was onl}^ 
for a moment ; for a rebel soldier, seeing me move, 
rode at me. The presence of danger roused me, and I 
managed to get to my horse, behind which I sank, rest- 
ing my pistol on the saddle, and so contriving to get 
an aim. As soon as the man saw that, he turned off 
without attacking me. I was now able to stand and 
walk ; and holding my pistol in one hand and my 
sabre in the other, I made my way across the fields 
to where our batter}^ was posted, scaring some with 
my pistol and shooting others. Nobody managed to 
hit me through the whole fight. When I got up to 
the battery I found Wood there. He sang out to me 
to wait and he would get me a horse. One of the 
men, who had just taken one, was going past, so Wood 
stopped him and got it for me. 


" Just at that moment White's battalion and some 
other troops came charging at the battery. The 
squadron of the First Maryland, who were supporting 
it, met the charge well as far as their numbers went ; 
but were, of course, flanked on both sides by the heavy 
odds. All of our men who were free came swarming 
up the hill, and the cavalry were fighting over and 
around the guns. In spite of the confusion, and even 
while their comrades at the same place were being 
sabred, the men at that battery kept to their duty. 
They did not even look up or around, but kept up 
their fire with unwavering steadiness. 

'' There was one rebel, on a splendid horse, who 
sabred three gunners Avhile I was chasing him. He 
wheeled in and out, would dart away, and then come 
sweeping back and cut down another man in a manner 
that seemed almost supernatural. We at last succeeded 
in driving him away, but we could not catch or shoot 
him, and he got off without a scratch." 

Adjutant Kitchen was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the Second New Jersey Cavalry the following 
August, and served until June 30, 1864, when he 

The First New Jersey Cavalry in this, as in every 
engagement in which it took part, was noted for the 
bravery of its men and the thoroughness with which 
they performed their duty. Its record is a noble and 
brilliant one, and no command shed greater honor 
upon its native State than this. The casualties in the 

Colonel Hugh H. Janlwa^, 

Major Com'd'g ist N. J. Cav. 

{Frojn a War-time Photograph.) - 


fight at Brandy Station were 52, of whom 6 were 
officers and 46 enlisted men as follows : 


Lieutenant-Colonel Virgil Broderick. 
Major John H. Shelmire. 
Company A — John Black. 

" B — Joseph Howard. 

'* E — Sergeant James H. Palmatier ; 

George T. Poulson. 

" F — Sergeant Samuel Rainear. 

'' G — Augustus Ringleb. 

Wounded and Missing. 

Colonel Percy Wyndham, gunshot wound through 
fleshy part of leg. 

Captain Henry W. Sawyer, wounded and prisoner. 

Second Lieutenant Hyde Crocker, prisoner. 

First Lieutenant Joseph Brooks, wounded, sabre cut 
of left arm. 

Company A — Henry Cash, Ephraim Croasdale, 
Charles E. Wilson, missing. 

Company B — First Sergeant Smighton P. Grossman, 
Private Aaron H. Rake, wounded ; Jacob Casler, John 
Tynon, missing. 

Company D — Octave Antonio, wounded and miss- 
ing; Isaiah Buchanan, wounded in shoulder; Joseph 
Crane, missing. 

Company E — First Sergeant Joseph Killey, slightly 


wounded in head ; Sergeant George W. Steward, 
gunshot wound in hip ; Theodore L. Clement, Daniel 
McCormick, missing. (The last named deserted.) 

Compan;^' F — Corporal Amos L. Poinsett, severely 
wounded in face and neck ; Charles Cadott, wounded in 
leg ; Daniel Cliver, wounded and missing ; Sergeant 
Joseph F. Thibeaudeau, Corporal Ridgway S. Asy, 
Nathan Moore, John C. Dantz, missing. 

Company G — First Sergeant Jeremiah P. Brower, 
Private James H. Stubbs, wounded and missing ; 
Richard Darmstadt, wounded ; Borden G. Joline, 
Marshall Summers, missing. 

Company H — Timothy Mahoney, wounded m leg ; 
Corporal John A. Schaffer, Privates William H. Jack- 
son, Douglas E. Grey, missing. 

Company I — Sergeant Frederick Schaal, gunshot 
wound left wrist ; Sergeant Charles Earley, wounded 
and missing ; Philip Hann, missing. 

Company K — Sergeant Robert Tuthill, wounded in 
thigh; Sergeant Richard Decker, rib broken; John M. 
Hendershot, wounded in foot ; "Henry Heater, severely 
wounded in the back, ball passing through and out at 
the abdomen ; John Hanley, missing. 

Company M — James Linlev, Horace Van Order, 

*Heater recovered from his wound, wa-^ promoted Corporal July i, 
1863, Sergeant, January i, 1864, and served his full term, being 
mustered out September 16, 1864. 




Killed. Wounded. Missing. Total. 

Officers 24 — 6 

Enlisted Men 6 19 21 46 

Total.. 8 23 21 52 

Among the Jerseymen of Martin's Independent 
Battery (Sixth New York) who did such heroic service 
the following casualties are reported : 

Wounded. — Frank H. Bliss, William Bishop, Augustus 
B. Crane, i\lfred T. Freeman, Robert H. Fowle, John 
Jordon. — 6. 

Captured by the Enemy. — Thomas Crane, Daniel C, 
Cripps, James Horton, Jonathan Hand, Daniel A. 
High, -Cornelius H. Miller, Rufus M. Miller, Thomp- 
son Thorn. — 8. Total, 14. 

*Recaptured at same fight. 


ewell's dashing advance through the valley — 
milroy surprised at winchester — the four- 
teenth new jersey on maryland heights — 
history of the corps badge — the new jersey 
troops and their commanders — an exhaust- 
ive march. 

ON the tenth of June General Ewell advanced his 
troops through the Blue Ridge to Chester Gap, 
then pushed on to Front Royal, where he 
crossed the Shenandoah river, and by rapid marching 
through the Valley reached Winchester on the even- 
ing of June 13th, making seventy miles in three days. 
Lee's line of battle thus stretched over an interval of 
a hundred miles, from Fredericksburg to Winchester. 
This rapid marching had for its object the clearing of 
the Valley of whatever Union forces might have been 
established there, the most important point being 
Winchester, which was held by Milroy with about 
seven thousand men. Ewell had so skillfully per- 
formed his mission that Milroy was completely sur- 

Winchester is a railroad station about thirty miles 
southeast from Harper's Ferry. It was considered a 


good point for observation and not particularly valua- 
ble as a strategic position. General Milroy had con- 
structed a stout line of intrenchments about the town, 
and he had a force of men sufficiently large for any 
ordinary defence of the place. In the neighborhood 
were many Union families who naturally relied upon 
the military forces for protection, and to whom they 
also were of great service. Berryville, southeast of 
Winchester, was occupied by Colonel McReynolds 
with a brigade, and Major Morris, with two hundred 
men, was stationed at another outpost. Bunker Hill. 

While the movements of General Lee were in pro- 
gress the authorities at Washington, on the nth of 
June, ordered General Milroy to remove his armament 
and supplies to Harper's Ferry. Milroy at this time 
was ignorant of the advance of Lee's army to the north 
side of the Rappahannock river, though the fact was 
known to the government authorities. He was reluc- 
tant to obey the order, as he felt able to cope success- 
fully with any force of the enemy likely, in his opinion, 
to attack his position, and he was permitted to remain, 
subject to conditions which would enable him to avoid 
an engagement with superior numbers. 

General Hooker, ignorant of the designs of the 
enemy, had not yet made a general movement of his 
army. On the loth of June, after the cavalry fight at 
Brandy Station, Generals Russell and Ames, with their 
detachments of infantry, had been ordered to join their 
commands, and the cavalry rendezvoused in the vicin- 
ity of Warrenton Junction. When Ewell's movement 

^ 5 


was observed, General Hooker, on the nth, ordered 
the Third Corps to move from its camps in the vicinity 
of Fahnouth to Hartwood Church, in close proximity 
to Kelly and Beverly Fords, which crossings they 
were to watch carefully, while the Fifth Corps, stationed 
in the neighborhood of Banks and United States Fords 
were to perform a like service there. On the 12th the 
lines were still further extended, the First Corps mov- 
ing from the vicinity of White Oak Church to Deep 
Run, the Third Corps taking a new position at Bealton, 
Humphrey's division moving to the Rappahannock, 
while the Eleventh Corps moved from Brook's Station 
to the place vacated by the First Corps at Hartwood 
Church. The next day, June 13th, when Ewell was at 
Winchester, General Hooker had only begun to put 
his army earnestly in motion. Milroy was in exceed- 
ing great peril. Without any knowledge of the move- 
ments of either army he was undecided for a time 
what to do, but on the 12th he sent word to Colonel 
McReynolds, at Berryville, to keep a sharp lookout 
as a reconnoissance ordered by him had discovered 
that a large force of the enemy were moving on the 
Front Royal road, and to be prepared to fall back on 
Winchester should he be attacked by superior num- 
bers. On the following day McReynolds fell back, his 
rear guard engaging the enemy, and succeeded in 
reaching Winchester before midnight, after a severe 
march of thirty miles. The detachment under com- 
mand of Major Morris was also compelled, after a 
severe engagement, to rejoin the main body at Win- 

Lieut. Rochus Heinisch, 

Co. A, 26th Reg. N, J. Vols., Inf. 

{Profit Recent Photograph.') 


Chester. Milroy's forces were being hemmed in on all 
sides by the superior numbers of Ewell, and these 
accessions to the troops at Winchester produced great 
embarrassment. Their presence augmented the diffi- 
culties which beset Milroy, and they were so exhausted 
after their arduous labors that Milroy was compelled 
to postpone action until they recovered sufficiently to 
endure further marching. Meanwhile Ewell was mak- 
ing the best use of his time and organized his forces 
for attack. The eastern side of the town was ap- 
proached first, but the attack there was gallantly 
repulsed. The enemy, reinforced, made a more deter- 
mined effort and succeeded in getting possession of 
part of the town, but they were driven out by artil- 
lery. Milroy then attempted to steal his way out, but 
every avenue of escape seemed to be cut off and as a 
last resort he determined to fight his way through the 
rebel lines. The enenriy outnumbered him two to one, 
but a desperate charge upon their lines enabled the 
troops to break through. In the darkness the column 
became divided and Milroy succeeded in bringing safe 
to Harper's Ferry the greater part of his command. 
Colonel Ely's and Colonel McReynolds' brigades 
were, however, captured."^ This cleared the Valley 
of all Union troops and made the further progress of 
Lee's army to Williamsport an easy matter. 

* Milroy's losses were severe. General Lee reported that his troops 
captured "more than 4,000 prisoners, 29 guns, 277 wagons and 400 
horses." These no doubt included seven hundred prisoners and five 
guns captured by General Rodes at Martin sburg. 


The alarm that was felt in Washing-ton by Ewell's 
presence in the Valley led to the receiving of marching 
orders by the '^Fourteenth New Jersey Regiment, 
Colonel William Truex, then stationed at the Monocacy 
river. Hurriedly, in light marching order, the regi- 
ment moved to the cars in waiting to carry them to 
Harper's Ferry, one company remainingl behind to 
guard the bridge at the river. The regiment went 
into camp on Maryland Heights, with the troops of 
General Tyler, who had "escaped from Martinsburg 
after a fierce encounter with Rodes' division of 
Ewell's corps. The Fourteenth encamped on the 
Heights for about two weeks. General Tyler Avas 
superseded by General French, who at once proceeded 
to fortify his position and make it impregnable from 
attack. At this arduous and fatiguing duty the Four- 
teenth were kept busily engaged and suffered great 
hardship and exposure. 

On June 13th, General Hooker abandoned his posi- 
tion opposite Fredericksburg, the First Corps moving 
from Deep Run to Bealton, the Fifth from the fords 
on the Rappahannock toward Morrisville, Wright 
and Newton's divisions of the Sixth Corps from Frank- 
lin's Crossing to Potomac Creek, the Eleventh Corps 
to Catlett's Station, while the Twelfth Corps moved 
from Stafford Court House and Aquia Creek Landing 
to Dumfries, marching all night long. The store- 
houses and supply depots at Aquia Creek were burned. 
As soon as the Federal army disappeared from his 
front. General A. P. Hill broke camp at Fredericks- 


burg and started to join Longstreet and Lee at Cul- 

The New Jersey troops were distributed as follows 
in the several corps :* 

*Each of the corps of the Army of the Potomac were designated by a 
badge, the First Division color being red, the Second Division white, 
and the Third Division blue. The flags of each division headquarters 
were designated as follows: First Division, a square flag, white, with 
red emblem in centre; Second Division, blue flag, white emblem in 
centre; Third Division, white flag, with blue emblem in centre. Bri- 
gade headquarter flags were triangular, the colors being arranged in 
the same manner. This method of distinguishing the various corps 
emanated from the simple device employed by General Kearny, while 
in command of a division on the Peninsula campaign, under General 
McClellan. Just before the battle of Williamsburg General Kearny 
caused the officers and men of his division to be supplied with a patch 
of flannel cut in the shape of a square (diamond) or lozenge, and in a 
general order directed that all the field and staff officers should wear a 
red diamond on the top of their caps, and the line officers the same in 
front, the enlisted men wearing it on the left sleeve of the coat. It was 
devised as a means of better distinguishing the officers and men, as the 
uniforms of both were so m.uch alike at the time as to cause confusion. 
After the death of General Kearny, at Chantilly, General Birney, his 
successor, ordered that these patches should be worn in memory of 
their gallant old commander, but none were entitled to wear the badge 
but those who had been in action with the divsion. General Hooker, 
when he was placed in command of the Army of the Potomac, utilized 
the idea and caused each of his seven corps to be designated by a badge. 
The badges worn by the New Jersey troops were as follows : 


Second Corps — TJiird Division, Second Brigade. 
Twelfth Regiment, Major John T. Hill. 

Third Corps — Second Division, First Brigade. Elev- 
enth Regiment, Colonel Robert McAllister. 

TJiird Brigade. Fifth Regiment, Colonel William J. 
Sixth Regiment, Colonel George C. 

Seventh Regiment, Colonel L. R. 

Eighth Regiment, Colonel John 

Second Army Corps Badge — Trefoil. Twelfth New Jersey, Second 
Division: Blue. 

Third Army Corps Badge — (Kearny's) Diamond, First Division: 
Red. Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Eleventh New Jersey Infantry. 

Artillery Brigade: Battery " B," First New Jersey Artillery. 

Sixth Ar?ny Coips Badge — Greek Cross. First Division: Red. First, 
Second, Third, Fourth and Fifteenth New Jersey Regiments. Battery 
"A," First New Jersey Artillery. 

Twelfth Army Corps Badge — Five Pointed Star. First Division: Red. 
Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment. 

The designs for the other three corps were as follows: 

1 6 11 

First Army Corps — Disc, or lozenge. Fifth Army Corps — Maltese 
Cross. Eleventh Army Corps — Crescent. 

In a short time the badge was universally adopted by the corps in 
all the armies of the Union, and became one of the most popular 
features of soldier life. 



Artillery Brigade. Battery '' B," First New Jersey 

Artillery, Captain A. Judson 

Sixth Corps — First Division, First Brigade. General 
A. T. A. Torbert, commanding. 

First Regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Wm. Henry, Jr. 

Second Regiment, Colonel Samuel L. Buck. 

Third Regiment, Colonel Henry W. Brown. 

*Fourth Regiment, Major Charles Ewing. 

Fifteenth Regiment, Colonel William H. Penrose. 

Cavalry DetacJinient. Company '' L," First New 

Twelfth Corps — First Division, Third Brigade. 
Thirteenth Regiment, Colonel Ezra A. Carman. 

Cavalry Corps — Second Division, First Brigade. 
First Regiment, Major M. H. Beaumont. 

Third Division. Brigadier-General Judson Kilpatrick, 

Artillery Reserve — Fourth Volunteer Brigade, 
Battery '' A," First New Jersey, Lieutenant Augustin 
N. Parsons. 

General Lee's plan of operations comprised, among 
other things, the drawing away of the Federal army 
from the Defences of Washington, thus to enable him 
to administer a severe blow to Hooker on Virginia 
territory. After Ewell had successfully driven Milroy 
from the Shenandoah Valley Hill moved to Culpepper, 

* The Fourth Regiment on this campaign was detailed as guard to 
division trains, and at division headquarters. 


and Longstreet, moving east of the Blue Ridge, occu- 
pied Ashby's and Snicker's Gaps, hoping by this 
manoeuvre to entice Hooker to move against him at 
these points. General Hooker, however, did not bite 
at the bait thus temptingly held out, but skillfully 
covered the Capital from any likelihood of attack and 
moved his army to checkmate any possible designs Lee 
might have in that direction. On June 14th he had 
advanced his army in the following order : The First 
and Third Corps to Manassas Junction, the Fifth Corps 
to Catlett's Station, the First and Third Divisions of 
the Sixth Corps to Stafford Court House, the Eleventh 
Corps to Centreville, which place it reached next day. 
The Twelfth Corps arrived at Dumfries on the morn- 
ing of the 14th, and remained there during the day. 
On the 15th, the day of Milroy's defeat, the Army of 
the Potomac moved rapidly to more advanced posi- 
tions. The Second Corps, which had remained at 
Falmouth, moved to Aquia, the Fifth Corps joined the 
First and Third at Manassas Junction, the Sixth Corps 
moved to Dumfries, just as the Twelfth was moving 
out for Fairfax Court House. The Cavalry Coi'ps, 
which had been rendezvousing at Warrenton Junction, 
moved to Union Mills and Bristoe Station. 

The march of the Twelfth Corps, from Stafford 
Court House to Dumfries, on the 15th of June, was a 
memorable one to the Thirteenth New Jersey Regi- 
ment. Orders for a change of camp had been received 
on the morning of the 13th, and the Third Brigade 
broke camp at Stafford and moved to Brook's Station, 

Major-General George Gordon Meade, 
Commander Army of the Potomac. 



where the rest of the day was spent in erecting new 
quarters. About seven o'clock in the evening orders^ 
to move were again received, and in a short time the 
column was on the road, passing through Stafford 
about nine o'clock and continuing on all through the 
night until Dumfries was reached the next morning. 
The night was very dark, but for a good part of the 
way the road was illumined by the bright reflection 
which came from the burning buildings at Aquia Creek 
Station. The march to Fairfax on the 15th of June 
was also a severe one. The heat of the sun was 
intense, there was little water to be found anywhere on 
the route, and whenever the column halted for a brief 
rest, men would search in vain for a stream of water to 
quench their thirst Occasionally a feeble stream 
would be found, but the sudden rush for water soon 
converted it into a mud-puddle, and thus the misery of 
thirst Avas only aggravated. The distance marched 
was about twenty-five miles, and so overpowering was 
the heat that three men of the Third Brigade — Charles 
E. Somerville, of the Thirteenth New Jersey, and two 
men of the One Hundred and Seventh New York — 
died from the exhaustion it caused. 

General Hooker had designed to attack Hill at 
Fredericksburg and put his army in such position as 
to interpose between Lee's main army and Richmond, 
but he was overruled by General Halleck. Com- 
pelled therefore to fall back and await the develop- 
ment of Lee's plans, he moved his army Avith marked 
skillfulness and ability. All the authorities agree as 


to the general correctness of the views advanced by 
Hooker, but he was in almost every instance balked 
in his designs by the military authorities in Wash- 
ington, and refused the cooperation which he deserved. 
He did not permit himself, however, to be influenced 
by the clamorous appeals sent to him ; he was forced 
in a defensive position by Lee's movements, and as 
though aware of the intent of Lee to draw him into a 
battle, he steadfastly pursued the one course of cov- 
ering the Capital against an}^ possible designs the rebel 
chieftain might have in that direction, and putting 
himself in position to watch every movement his wily- 
antagonist might make. 



THE rebel leaders seemed to have everything- their 
own way after the defeat of Milroy at Winchester. 
General Lee was the ruling spirit of his own 
army, and unlike the Union commander, was not hamp- 
ered by those in power at the seat of government. He 
gave wide latitude also to his lieutenants, and thus 
practically there were four independent armies, acting 
with a common impulse. Ewell's brilliant exploit had 
won for him the admiration of his troops, and they 
hailed him as a worthy successor to the idolized 
'' Stonewall " Jackson. The complete rout of Milroy's 
forces stimulated the advancing columns and embold- 
ened them to a wonderful degree. The fleeing team- 
sters, contrabands and non-combatants generally who 
had escaped from Ewell's clutches, created consterna- 


tion and dismay among the farmers of Western Mary- 
land and the Cumberland Valley, by the wonderful 
stories their imaginations conjured up, and these in 
turn spread the alarm by gathering together their 
valuables, live stock, and portable property, and fleeing 
toward Harrisburg. The whole country was in a state 
of alarm, and Jenkins with two thousand of his impetu- 
ous cavalrymen, started on a tour of the Valley to 
prevent the loss of so much material and supplies, of 
which Lee's army stood in great need. He entered 
Greencastle on the i6th of June and at night of the 
same day halted at Chambersburg. He levied on 
everything of value he could find — horses, cattle, 
forage, medical stores, and went so far as to seize a 
number of free negroes whom he sent South to be sold 
as slaves. It is said in behalf of Jenkins' fairness 
toward the people whom he thus despoiled, that he 
paid for the goods in " honest " Confederate money. 
This is true only in part ; he deliberately confiscated 
the greater part of the supplies seized, making no offer 
of compensation. 

The alarm which prevailed throughout the North 
on the advent of Jenkins with his bold raiders in Penn- 
sylvania, was increased by the apparent slowness with 
which the Army of the Potomac moved toward the 
enemy. This feeling found vent in hysteric appeals 
to the government and sharp criticism of the Union 
commander, as the defenceless condition of Pennsyl- 
vania made its territory a fine field for depredations 


of all kinds. On the 15th of June Governor Curtin 
addressed an appeal to the Governor of New Jersey 
for aid as follows : 

Harrisburg, June 15, 1863. 
Governor Joel Parker : 

This State is threatened with invasion by a large 
force, and we are raising troops as rapidly as possible 
to resist them. I understand there are three regiments 
of your troops at Beverly waiting to be mustered out. 
Could an arrangement be made with you and the 
authorities at Washington by which the service of 
those regiments could be had for the present emer- 
gency ? Please advise immediately. 

A. G. Curtin, 
Governor Pennsylvania. 

On the same day a dispatch was received by 
Governor Parker from the Secretary of War, detailing 
the movements of the rebel forces in Virginia which 
had been sufficiently developed to show that General 
Lee with his whole army contemplated moving forward 
to invade the States of Maryland, Pennsylvania and 
other States. The President, to repel this invasion 
promptly, had called upon Ohio, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land and Western Virginia for one hundred thousand 
volunteers for six months, unless sooner discharged, 
and realizing the importance of having the largest 
possible force in the least time, desired immediate infor- 
mation as to what number, in answer to a special call 
of the President, the Governor could raise and forward, 


of militia or volunteers, without bounty, for the period 
named, and to be credited on the draft of the State. 

These appeals were not as promptly responded to as 
the authorities hoped for. In Pennsylvania, where the 
greatest danger existed, the people seemed to feel their 
utter helplessness, and looked longingly, anxiously, for 
the advance of the Army of the Potomac. Philadel- 
phia was lethargic to a wonderful degree, and General 
Couch, Avho had been sent to Harrisburg, for the 
purpose of organizing a defensive force for the safety 
of the Capital, found himself without troops, and with 
slight prospects for getting any. Governor Parker of 
New Jersey promptly replied to the appeal of Gov- 
ernor Curtin, promising all the assistance in his power, 
and on the 17th issued the following proclamation : 

Executive Chamber, | 
Trenton, N. J., June 17, 1863. f 

Jerseymen ! The State of Pennsylvania is invaded ! 
A hostile army is now occup3^ing and despoiling the 
towns of our sister State. She appeals to New Jersey, 
through her Governor, to aid in driving back the 
invading army. 

Let us respond to this call upon our patriotic State 
with unprecedented zeal. 

I therefore call upon tjie citizens of this State to 
meet and organize into companies, and to report to the 
Adjutant-General of the State as soon as possible, to be 
organized into regiments as the militia of New Jersey, 
and press forward to the assistance of Pennsylvania in 
this emergency. 

Major-General a. T. A. Torbert, 
Brigadier-General Commanding First N. J. Brigade. 

{From Photograph after the War.) 


The org-anization of these troops will be given in 
general orders as soon as practicable. 

[L. S.] Given under my hand and privy seal this 
seventeenth day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty- 
three. Joel Parker. 
Attest : 

S. M. Dickinson, Private Secretary. 

The presence in the State of a number of the nine 
months' regiments, whose terms of service had or were 
about expiring, caused the Governor to issue a special 
appeal to these troops as follows : 

State of New Jersey, \ 

Executive Chamber, Trenton, \ 

June 17, 1863. ) 

Soldiers ! The Governor of Pennsylvania has re- 
quested your services to assist in repelling an invasion 
of that State. Your term of service has expired. You 
have performed your duty, and your gallant conduct 
has reflected honor on yourselves and the State that 
sent you forth. 

It will take time to organize and send other troops 
to the aid of Pennsylvania. You are already organ- 
ized and drilled. The hard service you have seen in 
Virginia has made you veterans — far more efficient 
than new troops can possibly be. 

I regret any necessity that may detain you from 
your homes, but can this appeal from a sister State, in 
her hour of danger, be disregarded ? 

Your State and United States pay will be continued. 


You will not be required to go out of the State of 
Pennsylvania, and will return as soon as the emergency 
will admit. Your response to this appeal will add to 
the fame you have already achieved. 

Joel Parker. 

On the very day the proclamation was issued, the 
Twenty-third Regiment, then in camp at Beverly 
undergoing the necessary preliminaries for being 
mustered out, were called together, and its Colonel, E. 
Burd Grubb, made a straightforward, practical and 
patriotic appeal to his men, who responded at once. 
Numbers of men who were not in camp at the time 
hastened to join their comrades, and that same evening 
the regiment, three hundred strong, marched through 
Philadelphia to the Harrisburg depot, receiving a 
grand ovation on the way. The next day they reached 
the threatened city, being the first armed force to 
arrive, but to the surprise of the men of the Twenty- 
third they were received with exceeding coolness. 
From the '' Notes of an officer " in Foster's '' New 
Jersey and the Rebellion," the following extract is 
taken : '^ Our men were refused canteens of water by 
the citizens, and one person who did not conceal his 
secession proclivities came very near being ' torn out,* 
so exasperated were our troops at his undisguised 
sympathy with the rebels. It required all Colonel 
Grubb's influence to prevent violence. The fellow at 
last procured a flag, hung it out, promised to behave 
in future, and was finally let off, a pretty badly scared 


man, who took good care not to ventilate any more 
disunion sentiments during the occupancy of the city 
by the Jersey Blues." A very different reception was 
experienced by Captain William R. Murphy, of Com- 
pany A, First New Jersey Militia, whose command 
also volunteered for the emergency. In a dispatch to 
Governor Parker he says : 

'' At Philadelphia and here (Harrisburg) we have 
received every attention because we are Jerseymen. 
'A citizen of New Jersey ' is a prouder title than that 
of a ' Roman citizen.' '' 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment, Coionel Geo. W. 
Mindil, on arriving at Cincinnati, learned of the 
threatened invasion of Pennsylvania, and the command 
was immediately tendered to the President who 
accepted it, and it remained in the vicinity of Pittsburg 
and Harrisburg until the danger had passed. Ten 
companies of New Jersey Militia and one battery of 
light artillery also volunteered for the emergency. 
These companies came from all parts of the State, 
three from Trenton, commanded by Captains William 
R. Murphy, Company A; George F. Marshall, Com- 
pany B ; James C. Manning, Company C ; Company D 
of Lambertville, Captain Hiram Hughes ; Company E 
of Morristown, Captain George Gage; Company F of 
Newark, Captain William J. Roberts ; Company G of 
Mount Holly, Captain J. Fred. Laumaster ; Company 
H of Newark, Captain Timothy Colvin ; Company I 
of Trenton, Captain Joseph A. Yard; Independent 
Company of Camden, Captain James M. Scovel ; Light 


Battery of Rahway, Captain John R. Chapin. These 
commands all reported to General Couch at Harris- 
burg, and the militia companies were organized into 
two battalions, commanded respectively by Captains 
Murphy and Laumaster. 

These commands remained in the State until all 
danger was over, and received the thanks of Governor 
Curtin for their valuable and patriotic services. 

While Jenkins' raid was in progress Ewell remained 
at Williamsport to rest his men, amuse himself by a 
feint upon Harper's Ferry, but principally to await the 
arrival of Longstreet's corps, which had been making a 
rather bold attempt to draw on a battle with the Army 
of the Potomac. 

This apparant inaction on the part of the enemy was 
a source of mystery to the Union commander. He 
was flooded with dispatches from Washington, which 
reflected the excited views of the people North, 
together with orders for the movement of his army 
which, in turn, were countermanded soon after. The 
North was alarmed, reasonably so. The Government 
at Washington appeared to be panic-stricken. Hooker 
alone seemed to have his head firmly set upon his 
shoulders. It was not yet clear to his mind that an 
invasion of Pennsylvania, further than a cavalry raid 
on a large scale, was intended, and he therefore deter- 
mined to halt his army, then approaching Centreville 
and Manassas, and await developments. The informa- 
tion he sought came to him most unexpectedly. 

The Union cavalry had given little attention to the' 

Colonel James N. Duffy, 

Lieutenant-Colonel 3d New Jersey Volunteers, 

Assistant Inspector-General on Division Staff. 

{Fro7H a recent Photograph ) 


rebel horsemen since the fight at Brandy Station, 
quietly following the movements of the army in its 
march toward Washington. Longstreet, unobserved, 
had taken position along the easterly slope of the 
mountains, and to Stuart's cavalry had been detailed 
the duty of guarding his flanks and defending the gaps. 
General Pleasonton had been scouting along the Blue 
Ridge with Gregg's division of cavalry, when, on the 
17th of June, he decided to go through Aldie Gap. The 
rebel cavalry had no suspicion that Pleasonton was in 
that vicinity, and had made a long march of forty miles 
for the purpose of occupying it themselves. Kilpat- 
rick's brigade was in the advance, and the opposing 
forces soon met in deadly conflict. 

Kilpatrick's force was a small one comprising the 
Second New York, First Maine and Harris Light — in 
the latter command were two companies from northern 
New Jersey, recruited by Kilpatrick himself. The 
First Rhode Island had been detached that morning 
with orders to join him at Middleburg. Forming the 
Second New York Kilpatrick boldly charged the 
enemy. This small force could not long withstand the 
shock, and as they galloped back to find a rallying 
point, the First Maine, supported by the Harris Light, 
rode upon the enemy with such tremendous force as to 
drive them from their defensive position, capturing 
a battalion of dismounted men before they could reach 
their horses, while the mounted rebels were sent 
reeling down the hill. They made no stop until they 
reached Middleburg, where Stuart had encountered 


Duffie's division. The next day, the 19th, Pleasonton 
occupied Middleburg- and Philemont, and after a series 
of briUiant encounters with the enemy succeeded in 
holding the positions he had gained. Stuart was 
forced to fall back behind Longstreet's infantry 
column, and the latter was compelled to take a more 
w^esterly route for his line of march. 

Hooker promptly availed himself of the advantages 
thus gained by Pleasonton. On the i8th he occupied 
the gaps, the Twelfth Corps being ordered to Lees- 
burg, the Fifth to Aldie and the Second to Thorough- 
fare Gap. The other corps of the army were formed 
in a second line in reserve. 

An amusing, if ghastly, incident is related by a 
former Sergeant of Company K, Twelfth New" Jersey, 
which occurred on the march to Thoroughfare Gap, 
with the Second Army Corps. The heat was oppres- 
sive. Men became utterly exhausted not alone from 
the severe marching, but their inability to get water. 
The streams were all dried up, and the little water 
the men had in their canteens had been churned to a 
disagreeable and nauseating degree of temperature. 
While the column was crossing Bull Run battle-field, 
murmurings of discontent arose from the ranks, the 
men being exceedingly fatigued and in a complaining 
mood. As the column moved on the body of a dead 
soldier was discovered, one of the arms protruding 
from the mound of earth which covered the remains 
and pointing upward. A soldier w4th a penchant for 
absurd remarks — and there were many such in the 


army — caught a glimpse of the upHfted arm and 
shouted out : " Say, boys, see the soldier putting out 
his hand for back pay ! " The remark was infectious. 
Men forgot all about their sufferings, and the ghastly 
joke broke up all the disaffection which had previously 

The Union army halted on the line just established 
for several days. The position was an admirable one, 
fully protecting the Capital and giving the army a 
good base for future operations. In the event of Lee 
moving still further from Richmond Hooker possessed 
splendid opportunities for attacking him in the rear 
and threatening his line of communications. This 
Hooker was desirous of doing, but all his requests for 
cooperative movements were refused, and his sugges- 
tions treated with contempt. His relations with the 
government were of the most unpleasant nature, and 
he was continually thwarted in his designs. 

The halt of the army at this juncture was not 
unwelcome to the troops. Ignorant of the intense 
excitement throughout the country, accustomed to 
place little reliance in the ''grapevine" stories which 
reached them, they surrendered themselves to the 
comforts of camp life, utterly unmindful of the 
desperate activity which at that time was making 
of Harrisburg a fortified city, and even awakening 
Philadelphia to a sense of insecurity. The customary 
duties of camp life were at once instituted, and for the 
first time in its history an execution for desertion took 
place in the Army of the Potomac. Three men of 


the Twelfth Corps, two belonging to the Forty-sixth 
Pennsylvania and one to the Thirteenth New Jersey, 
were shot in the presence of the whole of the First 
Division on the 19th of June, at Leesburg. The 
reasons which impelled this action were given by 
General Slocum in an address at Gettysburg, on 
July I, 1887, at the unveiling of the monument of 
the Thirteenth Regiment. As the incident related 
furnishes additional evidence of the kind heart of 
President Lincoln, it is worthy of reproduction. 
Desertions had been alarmingly frequent, particularly 
under General Burnside, and heroic measures were 
necessary in order to put a stop to them. General 
Slocum said : 

" Mr. Lincoln, in the kindness of his heart, was con- 
stantly pardoning these men. He could not sign a 
man's death warrant. 

'' The corps commanders of the Army of the Potomac 
had a little conference, and they agreed that they 
would take the thing into their own hands and put a 
stop to it. They agreed that they would shoot some- 
body as speedily as they could. We all pledged our- 
selves to that. It so happened that I had at the time 
three of these men in my corps. They were tried ; 
they were convicted upon incontestable evidence, and 
when we got up here to Leesburg, before the battle of 
Gettysburg, as all of you remember who were there, 
their graves were dug and the men were placed at the 
head of the graves and they were shot. They were 
sentenced to be shot between the hours of nine and 

Lieutenant-Colonel Willl^m Henry, Jr., 

Commanding First Regiment N. J. Volunteer Infantry. 

{Fro))i a War-time Photograph). 



one. I gave the order that the troops should be 
brought out, and the moment the hands of the clock 
pointed to nine those men should be executed. I did 
so because I anticipated that a telegram would come 
from Mr. Lincoln, if he could possibly reach me. The 
wire had been built well up : they were within a few 
rods of me; I knew what was coming. Before ten 
o'clock I received a message from Mr. Lincoln saying 
if such a man, giving his name, has not been shot, ' you 
will suspend his sentence.' I sat dowai and telegraphed 
back to Mr. Lincoln, ' The man has been executed, 
pursuant to his sentence.' Then we came up here and 
fought the battle of Gettysburg. Great battles were 
fought out west ; the whole country w^as in a state of 
intense excitement ; and when we were ordered west 
after the battle of Gettysburg we w^ent up to Washing- 
ton to take the cars. I went to bid Mr. Lincoln good- 
bye ; it was the last time I ever saw him. As I entered 
his room he said to me, w^ithout hardly w^aiting for me 
to greet him, ' General Slocum, the last message that I 
received from you gave me more pain than anything 
that has occurred since I took my seat as President.' I 
was astonished at his words and I said with surprise, 
* Mr. Lincoln, I don't remember; what was it?' Said he, 
' You were up there at Leesburg and I telegraphed you 
to suspend the sentence of a man who was condemned to 
death, and,' said he, ' the wife and the sister of that man 
sat here at this table opposite me and I had to open 
your telegraphic answer and read it to them.' Said he, 
' it caused me more pain than almost anything that has 


occurred since I became President of the United 

'' Now, think of it, gentlemen ; think of what had 
intervened — three or four months, all crowded with 
great events, and yet the first thing that came into the 
mind of that great man when he saw me was this 
incident, this failure of his to save the life of one man." 

During the time which intervened between the 
beginning of the campaign and the halt of the army 
on the line extending from Leesburg to Thoroughfare 
Gap, most of the nine months regiments returned to 
New Jersey. They were mustered out of the service 
at the following places : 

Twenty-first Regiment, on June 19, 1863, at Trenton. 

Twenty-second, on June 25, at Trenton. 

Twenty-third, on June 27, at Beverly. 

Twenty-fourth, on June 29, at Beverly. 

Tw^enty-sixth, on June 27, at Newark. 

Twenty-seventh, on July 2, at Newark. 

Twenty-eighth, on July 6, at Freehold. 

Twenty-ninth, on June 30, at Freehold. 

Thirtieth, on June 27, at Flemington. 

Thirty -first, on June 24, at Flemington. 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment, which had served with 
the Ninth Corps, at Newport News and Suffolk, was 
mustered out on June 20, at Beverly. 



IN THE foregoing pages the larger events of the 
campaign have been detailed with considerable 
minuteness and the army, as a whole, treated as a 
great machine, subject to the direction and control of 
its commander-in-chief; but this machine is composed 
of a large number of individual parts, and the manner 
in which they performed the severe tasks given them 
is a matter of great interest. At this first break in the 
progress of the army a favorable opportunity presents 
itself to introduce the recollections of some of those 
who participated in the march, enduring its fatigues, 
deprivations and hardships. 

The Second New Jersey Brigade, Colonel George 
W. Burling, commander — comprising the Fifth, Sixth, 
Seventh and Eighth New Jersey Regiments, the One 
Hundred and Fifteenth Pennsylvania, and the Second 
New Hampshire — formed the Third Brigade of the 
Second Division, Third Corps. An officer of this gal- 
lant brigade who was wounded at Gettysburg details 


in the following- interesting manner the experiences of 
that command : 

''On the eleventh day of June, 1863, the Second 
Brigade broke camp near Falmouth, Va., and with the 
rest of the Third Corps, under command of General 
Sickles, marched up the Rappahannock river toward 
McLean's Ford, and Rappahannock Station on* the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad, arriving at the lat- 
ter place at sunset the next day, and bivouacking on 
the north bank of the river. The only incidents of the 
march of these two days were the oppressive heat and 
the intolerable choking dust of the latter part of the 
march, especially when the column turned off upon a 
by-road, which led through a dense young growth of 
trees, to go to McLean's Ford. The close proximity of 
the river to our halting place, gave the men an oppor- 
tunity to indulge in the luxury of a bath, and to relieve 
the choking, parched sensation with good drafts of cof- 
fee, before sinking down by their stacks of muskets 
for the long, good, undisturbed night's sleep. It was 
refreshing to the tired foot soldier to be allowed to 
sleep until he had enough, without being rudely 
awakened in the early morning by the sound of the 
"assembly." That was one of the few times in our 
experience in the Army of the Potomac that we were 
not aroused from our slumbers by some command, 
before we had fully rested from the fatigue of a long 

" A slight stir was occasioned soon after sunrise by 
the galloping of horses about the field. The neighing 

Colonel Samuel L. Buck, 

Com'd'g2d Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 
(FroDi a War-time Photograph.) 



of the animals, and the shouts of the awakening soldiers 
as the horses jumped over the long lines of sleeping 
men in their wild career, caused no little excitement 
and apprehension ; but no one was touched by the ter- 
rible hoofs of the mad beasts, which seemed almost as 
miraculous as that so many should escape injury in 
battle with a shower of deadly missiles flying all 

" The regiments of the brigade were moved out of 
the open field during the day to the shelter of the sur- 
rounding woods, from the increasing heat of the Sum- 
mer's sun. It was sultry and hot. 

"At sundown a detail from the Seventh was made, 
of which Captain William R. Hillyer, of Company K, 
had charge, to construct a line of rifle-pits to command 
the approaches to the river. Having been supplied 
with picks and shovels the detail accompanied by the 
engineer proceeded to the river, on the bluffs over- 
looking which the pits had been marked for excava- 
tion. It was very slow work. The stiff, unyielding 
red clay seemed to resist all efforts to make an indenta- 
tion into it with the picks, wielded by the nerveless 
arms of tired soldiers. The urging and stimulating 
commands of Captain Hillyer, with the constant shak- 
ing of the drowsy workers, scarcely sufficed to produce 
more than a beginning of the ditch laid out. The 
night's work was useless, and the men all felt that the 
task was an unnecessary one. Another element con- 
ducive to drowsiness was the inky blackness of the 
night, m.ade more complete by the glimmering of 


myriads of fireflies, whose brilliant scintillations only 
rendered the shallowness of their illuminating power 
more conspicuous by the failure to penetrate the 
intense blackness in which they sparkled so continu- 

'' Just here it is in place to remark that at that period 
of the war the veterans in the ranks had learned to 
scent danger far more keenly than those high in 
authority. They seemed to know intuitively when 
danger lurked about them and were better able to 
discriminate between useless and necessary toil and 
hardship. Their keen intelligence and sharpened 
instincts plainly satisfied these tired and worn-out 
soldiers that the task given them to do was utterly 
useless, and therefore no amount of threats or sugges- 
tive warnings had any stimulating effect upon them. 
Nothing could move them to tax their exhausted 
energies. We all knew before we began our labors 
that Lee's army was not contemplating any movement 
against Rappahannock Station, and it was no surprise 
that work on the pits ceased at daylight, when we 
were called into camp. We already knew that Lee 
was in the Valley. 

'' The entire day of the 14th was spent in camp and 
at 9 o'clock at night marching orders were received. 
To the squad of men who had spent the whole of the 
previous night on fatigue duty, the prospect of an 
all-night march was not pleasant to contemplate. 
However we joined the columns and with the rest of 
the corps moved up the railroad in the direction of 



Manassas Junction. The aggravating halts to cross 
sloughs and brooks in single file, the hurrying to close 
the gaps thus made in the line, the roughness of the 
road, cut in many places through the thick scrub 
growth, beside the railroad bed, caused the weary 
hours of the night to slip rapidly by, and the early 
morning sun caught the column but ten or twelve 
miles on the road and more thoroughly worn out, 
than a twenty-mile march by daylight would have 
caused. We were at least eight hours in making 
this distance. Halting, stumbling over stumps and 
into ruts and mudholes, dozing as we walked in the 
ranks, and awakening by bumping against the knap- 
sack of the man ahead. 

''As daylight appeared and the sun rose, and the 
column still trudged on with no apparent mtention 
of halting, the dusty, exhausted ranks sent up the 
shout of ' Coffee ! coffee ! ' which passed along the 
column until it finally convinced the leader thereof 
that the earnest demand for refreshment should be 
heeded. About 7 o'clock, when the heat had already 
become unbearable, we turned into a field by the 
side of a clear stream near VVarrenton Junction or 
Catlett's Station, stacked arms, refreshed ourselves 
with a good wash, cooked coffee, and stretching 
shelter tents to protect us from the broiling rays of 
the June sun, we were all soon asleep. 

"At noon the march Avas resumed and taking the 
railroad track moved toward Bristoe Station and 
Manassas Junction. But oh ! the sultriness of that 


long afternoon ! The parched lips that gasped for 
water! The dozens of men overcome by the heat 
who dropped down by the wayside, especially in the 
long stretches of treeless and breezeless plantations 
that the column was compelled to cross ! Of the 
Seventh Regiment, comprising about two hundred and 
fifty officers and men, there certainly were not twenty- 
five who followed the Colonel's horse into bivouac 
at Manassas Junction, when the command halted 
there at nine o'clock on the night of the fifteenth of 
June. But the stragglers came in as fast as their 
strength could carry them, and by morning all w^ere 
ready for another start except the dozen or so made 
sick by the heat and march of the day before. 

" This exhaustive ordeal was followed by tw^o nights 
of good rest, and on the seventeenth, refreshed and 
buoyant, a change m the temperature also favoring us, 
we went along at a swinging gait across Bull Run, over 
the battle ground of '61, up the heights of Centre ville, 
where we halted and rested another day. On the nine- 
teenth we marched across Fairfax County toward the 
mountains in the distance. That day the column kept 
well together. There was no straggling and no 
annoyances from dust or heat. 

" Hooker's manoeuvering of his army was occasioned 
by his lack of knowledge of Lee's intentions, based 
upon the supposition that Washington was Lee's 
objective point, and to keep his army between Lee and 
Washington ready to be interposed upon any route of 
approach to that city which the enemy might select. 



Thus it was that we first covered the fords of the 
upper Rappahannock, and now at Gum Spring, where 
we went into camp on the evening of the nineteenth, 
the passes to the Valley were fully masked, while 
Hooker "in his headquarters at Fairfax Court House, 
received hourly intelligence from the cavalry outposts 
in the gaps of the movements of the Confederate army 
through the Valley. 

*' The signal stations at Aldie, Goose Creek and Fair- 
fax Court House formed an unbroken chain. The 
Seventh New Jersey was detached from the brigade to 
guard the signal station from bushwackers, or Moseby's 
guerillas, who, we were all well aware, were all around 
us in their peaceful homes in the garb of honest farmers, 
and innocent of all hostile intent, as long as we were in 
force among them and on the alert. From the rocky 
promontory at Goose] Creek, on which the signal 
station was placed, there was spread out below us the 
Valley of the Potomac, Leesburg, Edward's Ferry and 
the mountams in the distance. It was a beautiful pros- 
pect and thoroughly appreciated by the men of the 
Seventh who had been for two years shut up in the 
pine woods and lowlands of Virginia.'' 


hooker's perplexities aggravated— a dashing cav- 
alry EXPLOIT — lee's army IN PENNSYLVANIA — 

THE Army of the Potomac was daily undergoing 
serious depletion by the withdrawal of large num- 
bers of the nine months' regiments owing to the 
expiration of their terms of service. To supply their 
places General Hooker made urgent appeals to the 
government for reinforcements, but he was only par- 
tially successful. Stannard's Vermont Brigade, a nine 
months' command, was ordered to him and assigned to 
Doubleday's division of the First Corps, Lockwood's 
Maryland Brigade was ordered to the Twelfth Corps, 
and Crawford's Pennsylvania Reserves at Alexandria 
were also directed to be sent to him. Stahl's division 
of cavalry, six thousand strong, were added to the 
Cavalry Corps. The hysterical cries of inaction which 
poured down upon Hooker, while he did not permit 
them to influence his actions, did produce a marked 
effect upon the government, and the administration 
without giving him credit for any sagacity whatever 
found much fault with him, and at the same time would 

Colonel Henry W. Brown, 

Colonel Com'd'g3d Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 
{F?'0}}i a IVar-time Photograph.) 


not give him the help he needed. His suggestions 
were treated as of Kttle account. In the very begin- 
ning of the campaign when he had proposed to attack 
Hill at Fredericksburg and get between Lee and Rich- 
mond, the President wrote to him : 

" If you find Lee coming to the north of the Rappa- 
hannock, I would by no means cross to the south of it. 
In one word, I would not take any risk of being entan- 
gled upon the river like an ox jumped half over a fenee, 
liable to be torn by dogs fro?it and rear, witJiout a fair 
■chance to gore one way or kick the otJier.'' 

Later, on June lo, the President wrote: 

'' Lee's army and not Richmond is your true objective 
point. If he comes toward the upper Potomac, follow 
on his flank on the inside track, shortening your lines 
while he lengthens his. Fight him when opportunity 
offers. If he stays where he is fret him and fret himT 

Yet, when General Hooker sent for Crawford's Penn- 
sylvania Reserves to join his army, which had been 
ordered to him, the Military Governor of Alexandria, 
where the brigade was stationed, detained them there 
in defiance of Hooker's order, and was sustained by 
General Halleck in this act of insubordination.* There 
were in the immediate defences of Washington a 
large body of troops under Generals Heintzelman and 
Schenck, and General Hooker's suggestion that they 
be sent to the front where they could be of direct 
service against the enemy, was refused. A request 

*Comte de Paris. 


by General Hooker to General Heintzelman that the 
latter send a force of two thousand men from Pooles- 
ville, Md., to the passes of South Mountain, and thus 
aid in keeping Lee's column still further to the west, 
was likewise refused on the ground that the passes 
were not part of the Defences of Washington. Hooker 
was certainly in an unenviable position. 

Pleasonton's cavalry performed the serviceable task 
of ''fretting" Stuart — forcing him to combat wherever 
he could find him. A brilliant passage at arms between 
the troopers of these rival chieftains took place at 
Upperville on June 2ist. Gregg's division engaged the 
enemy in front, while Buford swept entirely around 
their flank and threw his whole line of battle upon 
their weakest point. Chaplain Pyne thus describes 
the scene : 

" Every field was the scene of a sanguinary contest, 
and every stone wall was made a fresh line of defence. 
On one occasion a regiment of rebels pouring into a 
field commenced forming line behind a Avail, as the 
Eighth Illinois were forming on the other side of it. 
The race for first formation was one for life and death ; 
and the eager horses came bounding into their places 
with a speed that partook of desperation. At length 
the Illinois regiment opened a deadly fire from their 
carbines. The rebels gallantly attempted a reply but 
the effort was too much for their failing endurance. 
Breaking in disorder, they were chased by Buford's 
exulting men, leaving twenty men stone dead in that 
short minute of fire. From that moment there v\^as no 



longer a pretence at resistance. At full gallop the 
enemy hurried into and through Ashby's Gap, leaving 
nearly all their wounded, a crowd of prisoners, two 
guns, and several colors in our hands as trophies of the 
victory. The Confederate cavalry had lost its prestige 

Pleasonton at once started to rejoin the army, and this 
movement was interpreted as a retreat by the enemy. 
The First New Jersey Cavalry covered the rear, and 
though followed by the rebels in a spiritless manner 
no encounters of any moment took place. On one 
occasion when the cavalry had almost reached the limit 
of their da3^'s march, the enemy opened upon them 
with artillery, a piece of shell striking Louis Vande- 
grift, of Company D, First New Jersey, fatally wound- 
ing him. Orders had been received to fall back when 
Vandegrift was hit, but before vacating the ground 
his comrades concealed his body in a corner of the 
fence. After the line halted for the night five volun- 
teers rode back to the spot, and while four of them 
faced the enemy, the other one dismounted and placed 
the body on his horse. Thus guarded the five gallant 
fellows rejoined their commands and Vandegrift was 
given a soldier's burial. This was the only casualty 
in the course of the movement. 

The retrograde movement of Pleasonton convinced 
Lee that Hooker would not engage him in battle 
south of the Potomac, and he accordingly gave the 
order for the long contemplated invasion. On the 
22d of June, Ewell crossed the Potomac river and 


Jenkins with his cavalry brigade was ordered forward 
to Chambersburg-, which place Rodes and Johnson's 
divisions reached the next day, Early's division taking 
the road to York by way of Gettysburg. Jenkins 
left Chambersburg on the arrival of these troops and 
proceeded toward Harrisburg, which place Ewell had 
been directed to take possession of if possible, ©n 
the 23d, Lee having been apprised of Pleasonton's 
retreat ordered the corps of Longstreet and Hill to 
cross the Potomac, the former at Williamsport, the 
latter at Shepherdstown, which was consummated on 
the 24th and 25th, both forces uniting at Hagerstown, 
in support of Ew^ell's advance. On the 27th, two- 
thirds of Lee's army was massed near Chambersburg, 
Avith Ewell proceeding on his northern mission. 

General Hooker was apprised of Ewell's advance 
on the 23d and on the 25th had knowledge of the 
proposed movement of the two remaining corps, and 
being now fully satisfied that Washington Avas safe 
from a surprise movement by Lee gave orders for the 
advance of his army on a line parallel to that of the 
enemy, taking the east side of the South Mountain. 
On the 26th the Twelfth Corps crossed the Potomac 
at Edwards' Ferry, with orders to proceed to Harper's 
Ferry, and act in conjunction with the forces there 
against Lee's communications with Richmond, and 
follow up his rear through the Cumberland Valley. 
The rest of the army proceeded on the line as marked 
out, the First Corps halting at Middletown on the 
27th, the Second at Barnesville, the Third at Middle- 

Lieut. -Col, Charlks Ewing, 

Major Com'd'g4th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 
{^FroJH a War-time Photograph.) 



town, the Fifth at Ballinger's Creek, the Sixth bring- 
ing up the rear at Poolesville. The Twelfth Corps 
reached Knoxville, three miles from Harper's Ferry 
on its special errand. The First New Jersey Cavalry, 
which covered the rear of the army, was the last body 
of troops to cross the river. 

Lee was kept in entire ignorance of Hooker's 
prompt action, by the absence of Stuart with his 
cavalry, who, w4th the permission of his chief, had 
started to make a circuit of the Union army. Stuart's 
intention was to turn the left flank of Hooker, and 
delay, if not prevent his crossing of the Potomac 
river. This raid, so full of discomfiture, disappoint- 
ment and vexation, absolutely barren of any important 
result, was of great value to the Union cause. 
Leaving behmd him the brigades of Jones and 
Robertson, who were to keep close watch of the 
Union army and follow its movements, Stuart on the 
night of June 24th set off on his famous raid. Moving 
in a southerly direction he encountered the Second 
Corps at Haymarket, which compelled him to make 
a wide detour to conceal his movement, and on the 
27th, when Lee's troops were near Chambersburg and 
Hooker's army had all crossed the Potomac and were 
far away in Maryland, his two columns were at 
Burke's and Fairfax Stations. Following in the rear 
of the Union army he reached Drainesville on the 
day the Sixth Corps left it, and discovered the 
important fact that Hooker instead of waiting to have 
his flank turned had moved off, Stuart did not know 


where. Under the impression however that the 
Union troops were marching in force toward Lees- 
burg, he, with great difficulty, crossed the Potomac 
near Drainesville, intending to rejoin Lee by marching 
through Maryland. He was simply following in the 
rear of Hooker's army, who had two days the start 
of him. 

Ignorant of the ridiculous position he was in, his 
troopers began to pick up small detachments of Union 
soldiers, capturing wagon trains, creating a panic 
among teamsters, and committing depredations almost 
within sight of the Capital. On his northward march 
he did considerable damage to railroad tracks and 
bridges, and burdened himself with a long train of 
captured wagons, filled with supplies of all kinds, and 
with which he was anxious to get to Lee's lines. But 
he was ignorant of its whereabouts, and on the 29th 
moved toward Westminster, where he was confronted 
by a squadron of Union cavalry, who stoutly contested 
his advance, and inflicted considerable loss upon him 
before they gave way. On the 30th Stuart started for 
Hanover, hoping to find Early there or to get some 
information as to his whereabouts, but as he ascended 
the small hills overlooking the town, to his dismay lie 
saAv a column of Union cavalry marching through the 
place, going north. Here was a dilemma. Retreat 
was out of the question, and as he seemed to be sur- 
rounded by enemies in whatever direction he moved, 
he determined, with becoming audacity, to attack 
Kilpatrick's column, and gain possession of the Gettys- 


burg Road. His encounter with Kilpatrick, at first 
successful, was turned into defeat by the timely arrival 
of reinforcements, and taking a more easterly route he 
marched his men all night long, arriving in Dover on 
the morning of the first, only to learn that Early had 
occupied all that territory but had departed suddenly. 
Moving on the afternoon of the ist of July to Carlisle 
he encountered General W. F. Smith's troops from 
Harrisburg, who had taken possession of the town, and 
remaining only long enough to demand its surrender 
under threat of bombardment he started for Gettys- 
burg where he arrived on the afternoon of the 2d of 
July, and greeted his chief for the first time in seven 
days. His men were worn out and exhausted after 
their long, arduous and fatiguing journey. 

In thus digressing to follow Stuart in his erratic 
movement and bewildering surprises, the regular 
course of events with the main bodies of troops have 
been interrupted. The orders for the Union army for 
June 28th directed the First Corps to Frederick City, 
the Second to xMonocacy Junction, the Third to 
Woodsboro, the Sixth to Hyattstown, the Eleventh 
to Middletown, and the Twelfth to Frederick City. 
The contemplated movement on the rear of Lee's 
army was thus abandoned, by the refusal of General 
Halleck to permit the troops at Harper's Ferry to be 
placed under Hooker's control and that officer resigned 
his command, which was promptly accepted. 

It is very evident that the removal of General 
Hooker was a subject that had for some time been 


in contemplation by the government. He was delib- 
erately refused every important thing he asked for, 
and realizing that without the active support and 
cooperation of the government, the army would be 
crippled in an encounter with the enemy, he promptly 
resigned. The feehng of the government as it existed 
toward Hooker is fully explained in the following 
extract from Mr. Blaine's "Twenty Years in Con- 
gress " : 

'' The indispensable requisite to Union success was a 
commander for the Army of the Potomac in whose 
competency the administration, the people, and most of 
all the soldiers, would have confidence. In the judg- 
ment of military men it was idle to entrust another 
battle to the generalship of Hooker, and as the army 
moved across Maryland, General Hooker was relieved 
and the command of the army assigned to General 
George G. Meade." 

General Hooker would evidently have been relieved 
had he not resigned, but it was clearly a mistake to 
have retained him so long in command without giving 
him the support and cooperation he deserved. His 
request for the utilization of the forces at Harper's 
Ferry was refused. General Meade was permitted to 
use them without a murmur. The Pennsylvania 
Reserves, refused to Hooker, joined Meade on the 
march. In fact Meade, whose competency to com- 
mand had yet to be proved, who had yet to win the 
confidence of the soldiers as a leader, was to be as 
strenuously upheld in all his acts as Hooker had been 


repressed. The difficulty of choosing a successor to 
Hooker had for some time been a source of trouble to 
the Secretary of War, and it is related that when the 
messenger whom Secretary Stanton had sent with the 
order putting Meade in command of the army, 
returned, the Secretary was impressed with the great 
fact that General Meade, while he had no desire to 
succeed to the command of the army, made no com- 
ment on the removal of Hooker. This may or may 
not be true, but General Meade very wisely made no 
change in the personal staff, retaining that of General 
Hooker's as his own. 



THE alarm which prevailed in Pennsylvania when 
Jenkins made his raid of the 17th subsided on his 
return to Williamsport, only to break out afresh 
and with increased anxiety when the forward movement 
of Lee's army began in earnest. The Twenty-third New 
Jersey Regiment had returned home and on the 27th 
of June was mustered out ; the Twenty-Seventh Regi- 
ment remained until the 26th of June when it left 
Harrisburg for Newark, where it was mustered out on 
July 2d ; the militia under Captain Murphy had 
received orders from Governor Parker to return, but 
the changed situation caused him to remain until all 
danger was over. With Longstreet and Hill at Cham- 
bersburg, Ewell with two divisions at Carlisle while 
Early was moving toward York, destroying the 

BvT. Major-Gen. William J, Sewell, 

Colonel Com'd'g 5th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 
{Frotu Photograph Since the War.) 



Northern Central railroad, and levying contributions 
on the people, and Jenkins with a large cavalry force 
moving directly on Harrisburg, the invasion assumed 
immense proportions. 

The finest agricultural region of the North lay at the 
mercy of the rebel army. If Lee's horses laughed and 
his men became merry at the bounteous plenty which 
surrounded them they met their Bartholomew a few 
days later. The tendency to pillage and destroy was 
great, and many unnecessary burdens were placed 
upon these peaceful people ; but war is a terrible, 
earnest thing, and General Lee endeavored to mitigate 
its severities by issuing strict orders as to the manner 
in which supplies should be taken. If the revengeful 
spirits of his men overcame their respect for their 
commander's instructions, that was a matter beyond 
his immediate control. 

Governor Curtin called anew for troops and issued a 
proclamation for the raising of sixty thousand men. 
Vain call. There were no arms with which to supply 
so large an army except old flint locks and shot-guns, 
and the time was short for the proper organizing of 
such a host. But some came. New York, West 
Virginia and Philadelphia responded, and additional 
appeals were made to New Jersey for aid. The 
attempt to muster into the United States service all the 
troops which had volunteered for the emergency, 
seemed to Governor Parker a serious thing, as it would 
take from his control the militia of the State then 
serving in Pennsylvania, and his own fears that New 


Jersey was imperilled led him to telegraph to Presi- 
dent Lincoln direct as follows : 

Executive Chamber, ) 
Trenton, June 29, 1863. \ 

To the President of the United States : 

The people of New Jersey are apprehensive that the 
invasion of the enemy may extend to her soil. We 
think that the enemy should be driven from Pennsyl- 
vania. There is now certainly a great apathy under 
such fearful circumstances. That apathy should be 
removed. The people of New Jersey want McClellan 
at the head of the Army of the Potomac. If that can- 
not be done, then we ask that he may be put at the 
head of the New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania 
troops now in Pennsylvania defending these middle 
States from invasion. If either appointment be made 
the people will rise en masse. 

I feel it my duty, respectfully, to communicate this 
state of feeling to you. 

Joel Parker. 

The President replied as follows : 

Washington, June 30, 1863. 
To Governor Parker : 

Your dispatch of yesterday received. I really think 
the attitude of the enemy's army in Pennsylvania 
presents us the best opportunity we have had since the 
war begun. 

I think you will not see the foe in New Jersey. 

I beg you to be assured that no one out of my 



position can know so well, as if he were in it, the 
difficulties and involvements of replacing General 
McClellan in command, and this aside from any impu- 
tations upon him. 

Please accept my sincere thanks for what you have 
done and are doing to get troops forward. 

A. Lincoln. 

The invasion, however, came to an abrupt and sud- 
den termination. On the 28th of June General Lee 
had been reliably informed of the presence of the Army 
of the Potomac at Frederick. This was startling news, 
as he had supposed that that army was still south of 
the Potomac, held in check by the ambitious and dar- 
ing Stuart. He saw at once that his communications 
were endangered, and, as Hooker had predicted, an 
attack in Lee's rear would compel him to turn back 
and give battle, or at least bring the invasion to an 
end. Realizing the great peril of his position he 
determined upon the no less bold and audacious plan 
of threatening Baltimore, and thus he simply did what 
General Meade was preparing to meet, though not 
exactly in the manner in which he was compelled to. 
Lee at once sent couriers to all his corps commanders 
to concentrate their troops at Gettysburg, and on the 
29th the rebel columns headed southward. 

The change of commanders in the Army of the 
Potomac from General Hooker to General Meade 
was effected quietly and with no intermission in its 
work. The march was continued as though nothing 


unusual had happened, but there was a deep feehng of 
regret at the resignation of General Hooker. The 
frequent changes that had taken place in the head of 
the Army of the Potomac, from the time McClellan 
had been relieved by order of the President, had 
almost destroyed the feeling of hero worship which 
existed in its early history. The army had developed 
into a self-reliant body of men, bent upon a certain 
mission the success of which outweighed all personal 
considerations, and its emotional nature though not 
wholly destroyed, had been disciplined into wholesome 
restramt. McClellan, who organized the army, had 
won the affections of the men. They followed him with 
enthusiasm through all the vicissitudes of the Penin- 
sula campaign ; they hailed his return to command, 
after the defeat of Pope, with joy and gladness, and 
their final parting with him was like the separation of 
life-long friends. Under any other form of govern- 
ment, a change of this nature, in the very midst of an 
active campaign and on the eve of an important mili- 
tary movement, might have led to serious conse- 
quences ; but McClellan's ready acquiescence in the 
orders of his government had much to do with allaying 
personal feeling in so important a matter. General 
Burnside, who succeeded him, was known to the men 
of the Army of the as a patriotic and loyal 
man of great personal bravery, and of commanding 
presence. His modesty of demeanor, coupled with 
his gallantry and bravery, caused him to be received 
with great cordiality, and with the same fidelity it had 



shown toward McClellan, the Army of the Potomac 
moved with Burnside and fought the disastrous battle 
of Fredericksburg-, where on Marye's Heights it vainly 
expended its force in a succession of assaults which 
stand unrivalled evidences of soldierly performance of 
duty and personal valor. The supersedure of Burn- 
side by Hooker, who had won the significant 
cognomen of '' Fighting Joe," by many deeds of 
daring in the Peninsula, restored the confidence of the 
army which had been seriously impaired by the 
Fredericksburg disaster. The unfortunate result of 
the Chancellorsville campaign did not destroy the 
confidence of the army in Hooker's ability, and it 
entered upon the Gettysburg march with all its old- 
time ardor and spirit. The change, sudden as it was, 
whereby General Meade succeeded to the command of 
the army, caused only a momentary feeling of regret 
to pass through the ranks. Hooker was beloved, 
Meade was little known, except as the commander of 
one of the best corps in the army. This fact reconciled 
the troops at once to his appointment. He had never 
won distinction, or made himself conspicuous, as had 
Hooker or Kearny or Hancock ; but his qualifications, 
so greatly the reverse of those which made them thus 
prominent, stamped him as a man of sterling worth ; 
his personal bravery was undisputed, and his heart 
was in full sympathy with the government. The 
characteristics of the several corps commandei'S were 
discussed frequently on a march, and they were 
generally " sized up " with great accuracy. It was the 


prevalent belief that Meade was a " safe " man, but not 
a brilliant or inspiriting commander. The army was 
Avilling to take him on trial. 

General Meade's first action on assummg command 
was to recall General Slocum and the Twelfth Corps, 
from its special mission in cooperation with the forces 
of General French at Harper's Ferry, and to order the 
latter to occupy Frederick when the army advanced. 
As strong evidence that General Hooker's removal 
had been contemplated for some time past, the action 
of General Halleck is significant. His first dispatch 
to the new commander of the arni}^, placed under his 
control, with unlimited power, not only the troops of 
General French, which were refused to Hooker, but 
also the forces of Generals Schenck and Couch. For 
the first time in its history the commander of the Army 
of the Potomac was such in fact as well as in name. 

The responsibilities of General Meade were great 
and he realized it. Retaining the personal staff of 
General Hooker as his own, he thus came into the 
possession of information which was of great assistance 
to him, but he was still ignorant of the intentions of 
Lee. Having abandoned Hooker's idea of attacking 
Lee on the line of his communications with Richmond, 
he so disposed his forces as to interpose them between 
the rebel army and the cities of Philadelphia, Baltimore 
and Washington, should Lee attempt an advance on 
either place. His orders to the several corps com- 
manders for the 29th of June were for the First and 
Eleventh Corps to move to Emmetsburg ; the Third 

CoLOM I Glorge C. Blrling, 

6th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf., Commanding 2d N. J. Brig. (3d 

Brig., 2d Div., 3d Corps. 

{From a Photograph after the War.) 


and Twelfth to Taneytown ; the Second to Uniontown ; 
the Fifth to Liberty, and the Sixth to New Windsor. 
The orders to the cavalry were for Buford to guard 
the left flank of the army by moving tOAvard Fairfield, 
Gregg's division to protect the right flank at New 
Windsor, Avhile Kilpatrick was to cover the centre by 
an advance to Littlestown. The army moved in three 
columns, the First and Eleventh Corps forming the 
left, the Third and Twelfth Corps the centre, and the 
Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps the right columns. 

The country through which the army was now 
passing teemed with a loyal and patriotic people. The 
presence of the Army of the Potomac was greeted 
with every manifestation of delight. To men who had 
spent the greater part of their soldier life in the pine 
forests of Virginia, where population was sparse, and 
what there was of it hostile to the cause they repre- 
sented, and whose professed loyalty to the government 
was in most cases a subterfuge to secure protection for 
their property, the change to the open country of 
Western Maryland, and among a people who showed 
by their demeanor that they were friends to the Union 
cause, was exceedingly gratifying. An officer of the 
Second New Jersey Brigade in a letter to the author 
thus details his recollections of events on this march, 
the correctness of which every soldier in the Army of 
the Potomac, at that time, will verify : 

'' On the 25th of June the Second Brigade crossed 
the Potomac river at Edward's Ferry, marched rapidly 
up the tow-path of the Ohio and Chesapeake canal, 


which here followed the course of the river, and 
bivouacked where night overtook us — on the bank of 
the stream. The marching was rapid, no rests were 
taken, and every man seemed to be left to himself to 
plod along as well as possible. When night came on 
every man halted where he was, picked out a good 
spot for his night's rest and without any formality 
spread his blankets and soon fell into a deep and 
refreshing sleep. The bank of the river, for ten or 
fifteen miles, was lined with straggling regiments. No 
details for picket or guard were made, the canal on 
one side and the bank of the river on the other preclud- 
ing the necessity for sentries, and abandoning them- 
selves wholly to the novelty of the situation, all were 
soon wrapped in deep slumber. The next morning 
witnessed a grand scurrying along of ten thousand 
lost warriors, eager to join their colors lest 'absence 
without leave* might be scored against them. Officers 
and enlisted men were all in the same list, and it was 
impossible to say whether colonels and brigadier-gen- 
erals had lost their commands, or regiments and bri- 
gades had lost their commanders. It was an open 
question and has never been settled. Nevertheless, 
as the sun mounted up into the sky there was a mys- 
terious gravitating of the units of military commands 
into their proper bodies, and a gradual augmenting 
of companies, regiments and brigades as the minutes 
and hours flew by, so that by the middle of the fore- 
noon we were once more pushing along in solid 
columns and with no straggling. We crossed the 



Monocacy river on the canal aqueduct, took the road 
for Point of Rocks, cUmbed up the hills, in a sheltered 
depression on the north side of which we bivouacked 
for the night. 

'''■ The next day we marched northward through the 
beautiful valley to Middletown, then turned eastward 
over the mountains by the pike to Frederick City, 
stripping the cherry trees on every hand and enjoying 
a royal feast of that delicious fruit which abounded in 
profusion and perfection just at that time. Here it was 
that the Army of the Potomac first realized what it 
was to march through a country inhabited by a loyal 
and patriotic people. Our progress was an ovation of 
cheering, sympathetic, grateful greetings from a happy, 
peaceful populace, unscathed by the devastation of 
war. The cherry trees were the only property of the 
farmers of Maryland that the toil-worn, hungry veter- 
ans were permitted to depredate upon, and they were 
stripped clean by the fortunate divisions of the army 
that chanced to be in the van. 

" The welcoming demonstrations of the people of 
Maryland aroused great enthusiasm in the Army of the 
Potomac. The profuse display of the Stars and Stripes 
from almost every house, the waving of handkerchiefs, 
and the smiles of fair ladies, the hearty hospitality as 
exhibited by the generous distribution of biscuits, 
milk, pies, cakes, and chickens, hastily cooked, to the 
appreciative soldiers was a revelation to the Army of 
the Potomac all the more astounding because of its 
contrast with the reception of the Massachusetts 


troops two years before in the city of Baltimore, and 
the well-tested disloyalty of that city and southern 
Maryland in the intervening years. The rivers of 
fresh milk that poured down the throats of the fifty 
thousand veterans of the army in those two or three 
days cannot be computed in gallons or in value, and 
it was all the more refreshing and grateful because it 
was a generous gift from the farmers to their defend- 
ers. That night we encamped on the north side of 
Frederick, after passing through that city amid the 
waving of innumberable flags and the cheering of the 
delighted populace. The next morning came the 
thunderbolt into camp which announced the resigna- 
tion of the gallant fighter and beloved commander of 
our old division, Joe Hooker, and the appointment of 
General INIeade as his successor. 

'' On June 29th Ave marched north toward Taney- 
town, the residence of the late Chief Justice of the 
United States, who rendered the famous Dred Scott 
decision, one of the fire-brands that helped to kindle 
the flames of rebellion. We also passed the home of 
Philip Barton Key, who was killed by our corps com- 
mander General Daniel E. Sickles, in Washington 
several years before the war, both bemg members of 
Congress at the time." 

The demonstrations of welcome which greeted every 
corps of the army acted as an inspiration upon the 
men. Fatigue was forgotten, and the one all-pervading 
desire was to meet the rebel army while it was on 
northern soil. As the column of Meade's army reached 


northward, all unconscious of the direct approach of 
Lee southward, the rebel chieftain was likewise mov- 
ing- without any knowledge of the whereabouts of 
Meade, whom he still supposed to be forty miles or 
more away, at Frederick and vicinity. The orders 
General Meade gave for his army brought them in the 
following position on the 30th of June : The First 
Corps at Marsh Run, the Third at Bridgeport, the 
Fifth at Union Mills, the Sixth at Manchester, the 
Twelfth at Littlestown. The Second Corps remained 
at Uniontown and the Eleventh at Emmetsburg, while 
the cavalry was operating on the flanks of the army, 
Kilpatrick encountering Stuart at Hanover, wdiile 
Buford was scouting about the mountains near Fair- 
field, Gregg covering the extreme right by moving on 
Manchester. In accordance with General Meade's 
instructions, a portion of General French's command 
took position at Frederick City. 

The advance of the Twelfth Corps from Taney town 
to Littlestown on the 30th of June brought the 
Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment to the front, their 
position for the day being the extreme right of the 
line. The march was void of incident until within 
about a mile of Littlestown when the column halted, 
owing to a report from Kilpatrick's cavalry that a 
large cavalry force of the enemy was near the town. 
The presence along the road of a large number of able- 
bodied citizens, who had left Littlestown, was a source 
of much comment and no little amusement to the 
veterans, and as the}' loaded muskets preparatory to a 


possible encounter with the enemy, the non-combatants 
expressed doubt of the abiUty of the Army of the 
Potomac to cope with the rebel forces. Moving- 
forward at a rapid gait the Third Brigade of the 
Twelfth Corps reached the outskirts of Littlestown, 
and three regiments of the brigade with Winegar's 
battery went on a double quick through the town and 
to the fields beyond. 

The approach of the Union army was hailed with 
joy by the people of Littlestown who heartily 
welcomed them by furnishing the soldiers with 
abundant supplies of food. To the tired army this 
generous hospitality was appreciated, and when at 
night the Thirteenth Regiment with the First Division 
of the Twelfth Corps went into camp on the farms of 
Spangler and Le Fevre on the McSherrystown road, 
they felt it no hardship to obey the strange and before 
unheard-of order : '' No rail fences are to be disturbed 
and no rails burned for any purpose whatever." 
This order was religiously obeyed, and the people of 
Littlestown to this day bear testimony to that fact. 
These incidents gave strong indication of near 
approach to the enemy, and the Army of the Potomac 
was on the alert and ready. 

At Harrisburg General Couch had succeeded in 
getting a few thousand militia organized and with 
General W. F. Smith kept close w^atch of the enemy's 
movements, reporting to Washington the information 
thus obtained. By this means General Meade was 
kept informed as to the progress Lee was making, and 



on the 30th had received notification of the withdrawal 
of Ewell's forces. When Ewell received orders from 
Lee to return at once to Carlisle, he had disposed his 
forces for the purpose of advancing upon and captur- 
ing Harrisburg, and as he moved backward General 
Smith, with such cavalry as he could muster, closely 
followed him. Ewell had no sooner left Carlisle for 
Harrisburg than General Smith occupied the place, 
and Avhen Stuart a short time after came to the tow^n 
in search of Ewell, after his long and exhaustive ride, 
he found the Union forces in possession. 

General Lee's orders to his army were for Heth's 
division with eight batteries of artillery, followed by 
Pender's division, with Hood and McLaws en echelon 
behind him to march to Gettysburg. Ewell's division 
was scattered, Johnson's division was sent to Green- 
wood, and he was greatly delayed in rejoining his 
command. This was the situation on the night of 
the 30th of June. 




GETTYSBURG! The terrible three days' con- 
flict on the heights surrounding this Httle town, 
from the masterly and heroic achievements of 
Buford's cavalry and the First Army Corps at Wil- 
loughby Rvm, to the spectacular and brilliant charge by 
Pickett's Virginians of Longstreet's corps on the third 
day of July, has been a theme of controversy among 
the chief participants and inspired the pens of the most 
gifted writers to a description in detail of all the 
momentous events which there happened. Swinton, 
in his admirable '' History of the Army of the Poto- 
mac," gives a critical review of the battle ; Doubleday, 
Avho commanded the First Corps, after the lamentable 
death of Reynolds, in its desperate struggle with 
superior numbers of the enemy, has written a graphic 
and unvarnished account of that magnificent engage- 
ment ; Walker in his ''History of the Second Army 

Colonel Louis R. Francine, 

7th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 

CFrom a War-time Photograph— \Z(:>'i,^ 



Corps" pays a glowing tribute to the men who com- 
posed that gallant body of soldiers, and Longstreet 
has given his version of the battle from his knowledge 
of Lee's plans, and in vindication of his own course, 
which has opened a controversy along the southern 
line of the argument that seems to grow more aggres- 
sive with time. The Comte de Paris, from the stand- 
point of an impartial and disinterested observer, has 
furnished the most complete and thorough record of 
the battle, and his unbiassed views on all the disputed 
questions which have arisen will be accepted as being 
nearer correct and just than those of interested contro- 
versiaUsts. To the mind of the layman, these points of 
dispute are of little account. The advent of the rebel 
army to the close proximity of Harrisburg ; the great 
destruction it did do and was capable of doing; the 
doubt and uncertainty which prevailed as to the ability 
of the Army of the Potomac to repel the invasion and 
drive the southern army back to its own soil, these 
were the questions of great concern then. The fact 
that the invasion was stayed and the Union arms 
victorious over an exulting foe, is sufficient cause for 
satisfaction now, and the army which accomplished it 
is deserving the admiration of mankind. 

If there be such a thing as chance in the affairs of 
nations, good fortune had certainly smiled upon the 
preliminary movements of the Arni}^ of the Poto- 
mac. The Quixotic raid of Stuart, whose long absence 
lured the rebel commander into a belief that his prin- 
cipal antagonist was unable or unwilling to follow him, 


was the first of a series of fortunate blunders which 
contributed to the success of the Union army. 

As has been already noticed General Lee had 
ordered the concentration of his army at Gettysburg-, 
for the double purpose of protecting his own line of 
communications, and being in position to threaten the 
cities of Baltimore and Washington. He was thus 
contemplating just such a move as General Meade had 
been preparing for, and both Generals were desirous 
of fighting on a defensive line. Lee hoped by manoeuv- 
ering to compel Meade to attack him, and under the 
impression that the Union army was in the neighbor- 
hood of Frederick, the movement of his arm}^ toward 
Gettysburg was conducted in a leisurely and confident 
manner. When General Meade gave orders for Rey- 
nolds with the left wing of the army to occupy Gettys- 
burg on the first of July, he was also in ignorance as 
to the whereabouts of Lee, or what his intentions were, 
and when, later in the day, on the 30th, he received 
information from General Halleck that the rebels were 
moving southward, he resolved to take up a defensive 
position on the line of Pipe Creek, toward which the 
army Avas to fall back should they encounter the enemy 
in great numbers. He was still unaware of the close 
proximity of the rebel army and did not change his 
orders for the day. Thus both armies were moving 
simultaneously toward a common centre neither of 
them dreaming that the bloodiest drama of the war 
was about to be enacted at the very place each desired 
to occupy. 



Gettysburg is the county seat of Adams County, 
and from it many roads radiate in all directions like 
spokes from a hub. At the north of the town the 
three roads, known as the Harrisburg, Carlisle and 
Mummasburg roads, all concentrate, while the York 
and Bonaughtown roads join at the east. On the 
western border the Chambersburg and Fairfield roads 
unite, while on the south the Emmetsburg, Taneytown 


and Baltimore roads, on all of which the Union army 
was marching, converge. Both armies were surely 
but gradually coming together, and the well-matured 
plans of the Union commander were to be overruled. 
The topography of the country about Gettysburg 
was admirably adapted for a battle-field and the many 
eminences afforded splendid opportunities for effec- 


tive artillery display. It is very evident General 
Meade, though a Pennsylvanian, did not have any 
personal knowledge of the natural advantages the 
country about Gettysburg afforded for militar}^ opera- 

General Meade was fortunate in having able and 
experienced corps commanders to assist him in this 
trying emergenc}^ The cavalry arm of the service 
was well officered and* ably commanded, by men who 
had all been tried in desperate encounters with the 
enemy, and they were nerved to any ordeal that 
might present itself, while, as for the troopers them- 
selves, they had measured sabres with their opponents 
and did not fear them, and as will be seen in the 
pui'suit of this narrative, they boldly and spiritedly 
resisted the infantry columns of the enemy, and with 
marked effect. Watchful, sleepless, Pleasonton's 
cavalry seemed to be everywhere and always just 
where it was most needed. On the 28th of June, the 
day that Meade took command, Gregg's division was 
on the right of the army, Buford guarding the left 
flank, while Kilpatrick covered the centre. Buford 
had sent Merritt's brigade of Regulars to Mechanics- 
town, southeast of Emmetsburg, while he accompanied 
the brigades of Gamble and Devens, on a spirited 
reconnoissance down the west slope of South Mountain. 
On the following day he moved up the valley north- 
ward to Waynesboro, recrossed the mountain range, 
and at night halted on the Fairfield road along which, 
in the distance, he saw the fires of Davis' brigade of 

B\ 1. ]\Uj()K-(;.hN. John R\m-i \, 

Colonel Com'd'g 8th Regt. N. J. Vols. 

{From a IVai-tivie F/totograph.) 



Heth's rebel division of Hill's corps. At break of day 
on the 30th he dashed into the presence of the enemy, 
who retreated northward after exchanging a few shots, 
and satisfied of his inability to successfully cope with 
them, returned to Emmetsburg where he reported to 
Reynolds the events which had transpired. That 
officer having received orders for the left wing of the 
army to proceed to Gettysburg the next day, ordered 
Buford to take immediate possession of the town, and 
hold it until the arrival of the First Corps. 

This important duty could not have been entrusted 
to a better or more capable man. Bufoi'd had distin- 
guished himself in many previous engagements with 
the rebel cavalry, but his stubborn resistance to the 
infantry columns of Lee's veterans on the first day of 
July, was an exhibition of daring and skillful general- 
ship which entitles him to rank with the bravest and 
best of those who fought so desperately and well on 
that memorable field. 

The encounter with Buford's cavalry on the Fair- 
field road did not seem to produce any special excite- 
ment in the rebel lines, as on the 30th of June when 
Heth's division reached Cashtown, he dispatched Petti- 
grew's brigade, with a large wagon train, to Gettys- 
burg for the purpose of making a requisition on the 
town for shoes and clothing. Pettigrew was about 
entering the town, when Buford came thundering 
along with his four thousand troopers, and the rebel 
scouts had barely time to notify Pettigrew of his 
approach, and thus enable that officer to fall back to a 


safe position on Marsh Creek. Halting^ his column 
there, Pettigrew notified Heth of the occupancy of the 
town by the Union cavalry. General Buford did not 
attempt to follow up Pettigrew, but took position on 
the west and north of the town, posting videttes far 
ahead on all the roads that were intersected by his 
line. Buford knew that the rebel army was close by 
and he anticipated a desperate and a serious struggle. 
He at once notified Meade and Reynolds of the dispo- 
sition he had made of his forces, and calmly awaited 
the advance of the enemy's infantry. 

At an early hour on the morning of July ist Heth's 
division moved from Cashtown toward Gettysburg, 
and gathering up Pettigrew's division marched for- 
ward rapidly, anticipating nothing more serious than 
a brush with militia. But their first encounter with 
Buford's brave cavalrymen who had been posted m 
the most advantageous manner along Willoughby Run, 
amazed them. Buford stoutly contested every inch 
of ground, and held the advancing columns in check. 
Indeed, the numerical strength of the enemy was so 
great that by a persistent advance they could have 
swept Buford's forces away, but the ignorance which 
prevailed throughout the whole rebel army as to the 
whereabouts of the Army of the Potomac, caused them 
to move with caution. The Union cavalry made so 
determined and stubborn a resistance, however, that 
Heth supposed he had encountered a strong body of 
infantry. Reinforcing his line he again advanced, and 
Buford putting in his last reserve, and personally 


directing the fire of his artillery, prolonged the strug- 
gle until the troops of Reynolds came in sight. 

When Buford saw the desperate conflict his men 
were waging against superior numbers he doubted his 
ability to hold the position a great while longer, and 
started for the seminary building to get a view, if 
possible, of the First Corps. He was quickly apprised 
of its approach by the appearance of General Rey- 
nolds himself, who had galloped forward in advance 
of his troops as soon as he heard the booming of 
Buford's guns. The cavalry had made a gallant and 
glorious fight, and the check the rebel advance had 
received saved to the Union army the line of hills 
south of the town on which the decisive battle was 
finally fought. 

When the sound of conflict reached the ears of 
General Reynolds, he lost no time in hurrying forward 
his men. Giving orders to prepare for immediate 
action he started off on a gallop to find Buford, on a 
ride that would have been immortalized in verse had 
the drama, in which he was so prominent a figure, not 
assumed proportions of such great magnitude. The 
regiment in the advance of the First Corps that day, 
was the Ninety-fifth New York, Colonel George H. 
Biddle. In its ranks were a goodly number of New 
Jersey boys, mostly from the city of Newark, whose 
patriotism had exercised so controlling an influence 
over their emotions that they went into New York 
city and enrolled themselves in the first regiment 
which took their fancy. While, therefore, no distinct- 


ively New Jersey regiment was engaged in the first 
day's battle at Gettysburg, the State was most nobly 
represented by more than a score of brave fellows, 
'' natives all and to the manner born." 

The march to the scene of action was an inspiriting 
sight. General Reynolds was one of the ablest and 
best known of all the corps commanders. Possessing 
rare personal courage, coupled with military ability 
and skill of a high order, he was well adapted to 
initiate the great battle about to take place. A native 
of Pennsylvania, he was incensed at the presence of 
the rebel army there, and was anxious to engage them 
in battle at the very earliest opportunity. His men 
were all infected with the same spirit, and they moved 
to the sound of Buford's artillery with that steady, 
quickened motion which betokened confidence and 
gave evidence of the desperate earnestness which so 
distinguished them a few hours later. The Comte 
de Paris in describing the spirit which animated the 
Army of the Potomac says : 

'^ The Federal soldiers and their leaders are fired by 
extraordinary zeal ; like Antaeus, who gathered new 
strength whenever he touched the earth, it seems that 
the idea of fighting on the soil of the free States, in the 
midst of a friendly population threatened with a 
terrible invasion, doubles their energy and their 
activity. The hesitations, the delays, and the frequent 
discouragements which seemed to paralyze the best 
conceived plans in Virginia, have given place to a 
noble emulation which urges them to dispute with 


each other the honor of dealing the swiftest and 
heaviest blows to the enemy. Without taking any 
account of their numbers, Reynolds himself notwith- 
standing the immense responsibility weighing upon 
him, gives them an example of this zeal by contributing 
more than any one else to inspire them with it. Sad 
and dejected, it is said, before the meeting of the two 
armies, he has become invigorated as soon as he felt his 
proximity to the adversaries with whom he desired to 
come to blows since the opening of the campaign." 

Buford and Reynolds ascended to the cupola of the 
Lutheran Seminary from which an extended view of 
the country for miles around was obtained. Wads- 
worth's division of the First Corps was observed 
moving with rapid strides toward the sound of battle 
and it was seen to move to the left without entering 
the town, and advance up the easterl}^ slope of 
Seminary Hill. Wadsworth's command consisted of 
two brigades under Generals Cutler and Meredith and 
as they moved to position an aide of General Howard 
made his appearance and asked for instructions for the 
Eleventh Corps. General Reynolds directed that 
General Howard bring his corps forward at once and 
^' form them on Cemetery Hill as a reserve," * and 

* General Howard has no recollection of having received any such 
orders, but as he did get orders to come forward, and as his corps was 
to occupy some place in rear,': as a support to the First Corps, nothing 
is more probable than that General Reynolds directed him to go there; 
for its military advantages were obvious enough to any experienced 
commander. Lieutenant Rosengarten, of General Reynolds' staff, 


then accompanied Wadsworth to place his men in 

The place chosen for the battle-ground was on the 
west side of the town along the course of the stream 
known as Willoughby Run, its course at this point 
being almost due north and south. The Chambersburg 
and Fairfield roads both cross the stream, and uniting 
near the town form an angle of considerable extent. 
These roads also cross two elevations of ground, or 
ridges, running parallel with the stream, the one 
further west from the town being the scene of the first 
day's fighting. On the heights nearest the town is 
situated the Theological Seminary, from which the 
ridge derives its name. The steeple of this building 
was used by the commanders of both armies as an 
observatory. The rebels were advancing on the 
Chambersburg road in strong numbers when Wads- 
worth arrived, and Reynolds in person posted the 
Second Maine Battery in the road, and threw forward 
the Fourteenth Brooklyn, Colonel Fowler, and the 
Ninety-fifth New York, Colonel Biddle, (both under 

states positively that he was present and heard the order given for 
Howard to post his troops on Cemetery Ridge. The matter is of some 
moment, as the position in question ultimately gave us the victory, 
and Howard received the thanks of Congress for selecting it. It is 
not to be supposed that either Howard or Rosengarten would misstate 
the matter. It is quite possible that Reynolds chose the hill simply 
as a position upon which his force could rally if driven back, and 
Howard selected it as a suitable battle-field for the army. It has since 
been universally conceded that it was admirably adapted for that 
purpose. — Doubleday. 



Fowler's command,) in advance on the left, the other 
three regiments of the brigade — One Hundred and 
Forty-seventh New York, Seventy-sixth New York, 
and Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania — being placed in line on 
the right of the road. Gamble's brigade of cavalry 
were withdrawn and formed in column on the left of 
the infantry, Deven's brigade, further to the right 


facing north, still awaiting the approach of the enemy 
from that direction. 

The battle which was here waged with persistent 
fury, was a fitting prelude to the desperate conflict 
which succeeded it, and but for the gallant resistance 
made by the veterans of the First Corps in this initia- 
tory contest, the admirable position on the hills south 
of Gettysburg would undoubtedly have been lost to 
the Army of the Potomac. Both armies thus con- 


fronted each other, and were coming closer together 
in such manner that a conflict was inevitable. To 
hold the enemy in check until the rest of the army 
could arrive and take position on the ridge in rear of 
the town, the admirable advantages of which had pre- 
sented themselves to both Buford and Reynolds, was 
the imperative duty of the First Army Corps. How 
well they succeeded, how desperately they fought, 
how tenaciously they held their ground against over- 
w^helming numbers, relinquishing it only when over- 
powered, is graphically related by Doubleday. 

The army of General Lee was close at hand. Hill's 
whole corps w^as available for immediate action. Ewell 
was advancing from the north, with his entire com- 
mand except Johnson's division, and the small body of 
men posted to contest their advance could have been 
swept away like leaves before the wind ; but the rebel 
leaders were not anticipating a meeting with the Army 
of the Potomac. Ewell had passed through Gettys- 
burg two days before, at which time no one knew any- 
thing about Meade's army, and General Lee conse- 
quently felt no particular anxiety concerning it. The 
obstructions so far encountered were to his mind 
''some gentlemen militia," who would be ready to 
depart as soon as it became a little warm for them. 

Davis' rebel brigade, which had been thrown for- 
ward, to clear the road, formed behind a ridge, and 
was unperceived by Cutler's men. When they 
advanced into view the left of their line came square 
upon the right flank of Cutler's small force, which was 



compelled to fall back, and was ordered to re-form on 
Seminary Ridge. The Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania first 
perceived the enemy and opened fire, but they were 
soon overpowered and with the Seventy-sixth New 
York Regiment succeeded in getting away, continuing 
their retreat to the outskirts of the town ; but the One 
Hundred and Forty-seventh New York Regiment, 
not receiving the order to fall back — its Colonel having 


been killed before the order could be given — was 
being hemmed in on all sides and made a desperate 
fight. As this movement of Davis' brigade also 
uncovered the right flank of Colonel Fowler's two 
regiments, while Archer's rebel brigade was advanc- 
ing to envelop their left, they fell back in good 
order. Meredith's " Iron Brigade," commanded by 
Colonel Morrow — its permanent commander having 
been wounded by a shell — had been formed in line 


on the west slope of Seminary Ridge, and as Archer's 
brigade, preceded by skirmishers, was advancing to 
get possession of a small wood between the two 
roads, Colonel Morrow was ordered by General 
Doubleday to secure the position and hold it at all 
hazards. Enthusiastically they moved to the task, the 
Sixth Missouri Regiment being detached and with 
the headquarter guard composed of the One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-ninth Pennsylvania, forming a reserve. 
The "Iron Brigade" was composed of the Second 
Wisconsin, Colonel Lucius Fairchild ; Sixth Wis- 
consin, Lieutenant R. R. Dawes ; Seventh Wisconsin, 
Colonel W. \¥. Robinson ; Twenty-fourth Michigan, 
Colonel Henry A. Morrow ; Nineteenth Indiana, 
Colonel Samuel Williams — five regiments in all. 
Advancing boldly toward the enemy the Second Wis- 
consin enveloped their right flank, capturing Archer 
himself and more than a thousand of his men. Sur- 
prised at this extraordinary movement the remnant 
ol Archer's troops fled precipitately, being pursued 
to the opposite side of Willoughby's Run by the vic- 
torious Unionists. 

There was now time to pay some attention to the 
attack on Cutler, as Davis' men were exultant over 
their success, and were pursuing the flying regiments 
to Gettysburg. Lieutenant-Colonel Dawes with the 
Sixth Wisconsin, advanced against the exposed flank 
of Davis, and Colonel Fowler with the Fourteenth 
Brooklyn and Ninety-fifth New York, joined forces 
with him. Noticing this movement Davis stopped 

BvT, Major-Gex, Robert McAllister, 

Colonel Com'd'g nth N. J. Vols., Inf. 

{From a Steel Engraving.') 


his pursuit of Cutler's men, and rushing into the rail- 
road cut, where the grading afforded them shelter, 
they made a desperate resistance, but they had entered 
a trap. Fowler confronted them above, and Dawes 
opened a murderous fire upon them with a section of 
artillery which enfiladed their position, and he also 
formed his men across the cut, by Colonel Fowler's 
order to fire through it, thus haying them completely 
at bay. The One Hundred and Forty-seventh New 
York was released from its perilous position, and 
two-thirds of the enemy surrendered, the rest escap- 
ing by scattering over the country. 

These brilliant exploits were saddened by the death 
of General Reynolds, who was instantly killed by a 
musket ball immediately after deploying the men of 
Cutler's brigade. General Doubleday at once took 
command of the corps, and during the respite occa- 
sioned by the inaction of the enemy re-formed and 
strengthened his lines. 

General Heth had halted his column to await the 
result of the action of his two brigades, and the news 
he received was far from encouraging. Replacing his 
defeated and dispirited troops with the fresh men of 
Pettigrew and Brockenborough supported by Pender's 
division, he advanced to a renewal of the fight. 

Doubleday anxiously awaited the arrival of his other 
two divisions, Robinson's and his own commanded 
temporarily by General Rowley. At this time General 
Howard had arrived upon the scene, having preceded 
his corps, and noting the precipitate retreat of the two 

1 62 


regiments of Cutler's brigade, magnified their dis- 
orderly haste into a rout of the First Corps, and so 
notified General Meade. At eleven o'clock to the great 
relief of General Doubleday the remainder of the First 
Corps came up. The enemy had established their line 
in a commanding position, and their artillery was 
advantageously posted, so as to sweep the Chambers- 


second advance of heth s troops against the first corps, 
doiibleday's map. 

burg road. A severe artillery duel took place at this 
point, the batteries of Calef and Reynolds doing 
splendid execution. Doubleday posted his troops in 
the following order to meet this new attack : Stone's 
brigade, of Rowley's division, being placed to the 
right of the woods occupied by Morrow, and Colonel 


Biddle's brigade on the left, with Robinson's division 
in reserve at the seminary, on the west of which 
Robinson's men threw up a semicircular line of breast 
works, which served an admirable purpose later on. 

The battle Avhich ensued was one of the most 
desperate of the three days' contest. Howard upon 
receiving- the news of the death of General Reynolds, 
assumed command of the left wing, turning over the 
command of the Eleventh Corps to General Schurz, 
General Barlow taking command of the division. He 
also notified General Meade of the sad event and sent 
orders to Sickles at Emmetsburg and Slocum at Two 
Taverns to hasten to the field. Between twelve and 
one o'clock the Eleventh Corps made its appearance on 
the scene of action and the divisions of Schimmel- 
pfennig and Barlow w^ere orderd to the support of 
Doubleda}^ and w^ere directed to extend his line to the 
right, Steinwehr's division, with the reserve artillery 
being ordered to Cemetery Hill, as a reserve. 

A new danger however threatened the Union line 
before these dispositions could be made. Buford, who 
had been anxiously watching the road from the north, 
where Deven's cavalry brigade had been posted, 
informed Doubleday of the approach of Ewell's troops 
from that direction, and Howard ordered the Eleventh 
Corps to change front and keep Ewell from assailing 
the First Corps in flank. This relieved the cavalry, 
who withdrew and formed still farther to the right. 

The movements of Ewell's two divisions had been 


well timed and both Rodes and Early came in sight of 
Gettysburg at almost the same moment. Before their 
exact whereabouts were known to the Union troops 
Rodes had posted a battery on Oak Hill, an eminence 
to the right of and almost on a line with that occupied 
by the troops of Doubleday. When the Eleventh 
Corps line had been established to meet Ewell, it left a 
wide interval between the left of Barlow and the right 
of Cutler's brigade of the First Corps, which neces- 
sitated the use of all of Doubleday's reserves, besides 
attenuating his general line of battle. 

Noting with satisfaction the arrival of Ewell on the 
right flank of the Union line, Hill moved promptly to 
attack Doubleday with his whole force. Under cover 
of the dense woods Rodes succeeded in joining his 
line to that of Hill, Avhile his artillery played effect- 
ively upon Doubleday's guns on the Chambersburg 
road. Rodes attacked Cutler's right flank vigorously. 
Doubleday proved equal to this emergency however. 
He ordered Baxter's brigade to fill the gap between 
Cutler and the Eleventh Corps, and as Baxter advanced 
boldly up the Mummasburg road, Rodes sent O'Neal's 
brigade in upon his flank. O'Neal was repulsed with 
heavy loss, and Iverson's rebel brigade was ordered to 
assail both Cutler and Baxter. Doubleday ordered in 
another brigade, and Robinson sent forward Paul's 
brigade, which took up position with Baxter. Double- 
day had so far held his own against superior numbers. 
All the positions south of the Chambersburg road 

BvT. Col. John Schoonover, 

Adjt. nth Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 

{Frotn a War-time Photograph.) 


had been retained, but the enemy was pressing him 
hard on the right. Iverson's attack upon Robinson's 
two brigades failed and his force was almost annihi- 
lated, his loss being heavy in killed and wounded and 
over a thousand men were taken prisoners. Daniel 
came to Iverson's rescue, but arrived too late, and his 
advance was checked. O'Neal, Iverson and Daniel 
were each in turn defeated, and Heth, who made 
a vigorous demonstration against Meredith was also 
repulsed. Growing desperate the rebels determined 
to assault in force, and Ramseur, who had come up to 
assist Daniel, was aided by the advance of the three 
brigades of Pender's division, thus throwing upon the 
weakened, but obstinate Union line, a numerical force 
that by pressure alone must carry the position. Assist- 
ance was also coming to the enemy in another shape. 
Early's entire division was advancing to the front, and 
they poured down upon Barlow's division in great 
numbers, who resisted stoutly, but were obliged to fall 
back, leaving their wounded in the hands of the enemy, 
the heroic Barlow being among them. Schimmel- 
pfennig was attacked by Doles' brigade, and retreated 
in hot haste, and as this division broke a general 
retreat Avas ordered by Howard. Schimmelpfennig's 
flight compelled Robinson to abandon his position, 
and Doubleday having used up all his reserves was 
at last compelled to fall back. Halting and re-form- 
ing his line in the semi-circular entrenchment thrown 
up by Robinson's division Doubleday, aided by Buford, 


who formed his cavalry in Hue of "^^ battalion in mass 
to keep open the line of retreat, held the enemy in 
check for a short time. 

The position of the First Corps was exceedingly 
critical, and its escape from annihilation is due to the 
great presence of mind and the skillful generalship of 
General Doubleday. As the columns of retreating 
Unionists mixed together in the town, men became 
separated from their commands, thousands were 
picked up by the enemy on the streets, and the 
roads leading to the rear were thronged with a 
motley crew of frightened and demoralized soldiers, 
whom no power seemed able to hold in check.f 

A new actor now appeared upon the scene. When 
General Meade, at his headquarters in Taneytown, 
received the message from Howard that the First 
Corps were flying from the field, there was forced upon 
him the necessity of immediately deciding whether to 

* General Francis A. Walker in his "History of the Second Army- 
Corps" relates this incident : "When last it was my privilege to see 
General Hancock, in November, 1885, he pointed out to me from 
Cemetery Hill the position occupied by Buford at this critical junct- 
ure, and assured me that, among the most inspiring sights of his 
military career was the splendid spectacle of that gallant cavalry, as 
it stood there unshaken and undaunted, in the face of the advancing 
Confederate infantry." 

f The Comte de Paris estimates that of the 16,000 men who went 
into action on the Union side no more than 5,000 were left in fighting 
condition. The First Corps was reduced to 2,450 men. Out of the 
11,000 missing nearly 4,000 had been left on the field of battle, and 
about 5,000 were taken prisoners; the rest had scattered. 


fight the battle where the conflict had begun or adhere 
to his original plan of forming a line on Pipe Creek. 
Instead of going to Gettysburg himself he sent for 
General Hancock, who had just arrived in Taneytown 
with the Second Corps, and appointed him to the com- 
mand of the left wing, thus superseding both Howard 
and Sickles, who ranked him by seniority, and dele- 
gated to him the practical selection of the battle-field, 
whether to order up the whole army to Gettysburg 
and there join issue with the enemy, or to fall back to 
the position original^ determined upon. When Han- 
cock arrived upon the scene the confusion of retreat 
had not subsided. Streams of frightened men were 
passing down the Taneytown and Baltimore roads to 
the rear, and the powerlessness of Howard to restore 
confidence to the men was apparent. Hancock 
addressed himself at once to the task, and his presence 
was immediately felt by the troops. Brave, even to 
rashness, his manner and bearing made their impress 
felt. Men, who first thought only of flight, halted, 
cheered for Hancock, and sought their colors. His 
presence was worth a corps of men at that moment, 
and, though Seminary Ridge was lined with rebel 
infantry, and Ewell's troops were advancing through 
the town toward Cemetery Hill, Hancock re-formed 
the line with the Eleventh Corps on the right of Stein- 
wehr's fortified position, the First Corps on the left 
and all the artillery at command posted in advan- 
tageous positions, thus presenting a bold front to the 
victorious foe. Noting the rising ground on the right 


— Gulp's Hill — toward which Ewell was moving, he 
posted Wadsworth's division there, and formed the 
cavalry on the left of Doubleday. The transformation 
was complete. Order had been restored out of chaos, 
and as Lee and his officers gazed upon this new line of 
battle, which had formed under the very muzzles of 
their guns, they mistook the deployment of this small 
force in a thin line to the right and left for the arrival 
of reinforcements, and hesitated to attack. Ewell was 
desirous of doing so, but Lee would not imperatively 
order it, and after a short contest with Wadsworth's 
men, the enemy halted. This was another of the 
blunders which aided the Union cause on this 
campaign. Had Ewell advanced at once. Gulp's Hill 
would have fallen into his possession and he would 
thus have commanded the roads on which Meade's 
army was then moving. 

The enemy however had had more fighting than they 
expected to experience. Their losses had been severe, 
and though they had met and defeated but two army 
corps, the fact — of which they had at last become 
cognizant — that the Army of the Potomac was in front 
of them, led to a magnifying of the importance of their 
victory. From prisoners they had no doubt learned 
that Meade's army was well on its way to Gettysburg, 
and as Lee had been deceived by the show of force on 
Gemetery Hill, he preferred to await the arrival of all 
his army before attacking. 

On the morning of July ist Sickles had received 
orders from General Meade to fall back to a position 


on the Pipe Creek line of battle, but learning subse- 
quently that the First and Eleventh Corps, which with 
his own comprised the left wing of the arm}^, were 
engaged with the enemy, he promptly moved toward 
the sound of action. He had resumed command of the 
Third Corps only a few days previous, and was 
naturally anxious to meet the enemy. Detaching De 
Trobriand's brigade from Birney's division, and 
Burling's brigade — composed of the Fifth, Sixth, 
Seventh and Eighth New Jersey Regiments, the One 
Hundred and Fifteenth Pennsylvania and the Second 
New Hampshire — from Humphreys' division with or- 
ders to remain at Emmetsburg, he moved promptly 
forward with Birney's division, and arriving on the 
field was assigned to position on the left of the First 

The Twelfth Corps advanced from Littlestown on 
the morning of July ist and at noon halted at Two 
Taverns, about five miles southeast from Gettysburg. 
While here word was received from Howard as to the 
engagement then in progress, and the order to march 
was soon given. Geary's division moved directly for 
Gettysburg by the Baltimore pike, and Williams' divi- 
sion, taking a road leading to the right advanced 
rapidly toward the sound of artillery. Proceeding 
some distance, skirmishers were sent forward, and as 
Benner's Hill loomed up in their front a body of horse- 
men were seen on its summit closely scanning the 
country around. Ewell's scouts were soon encoun- 
tered and a few shots were exchanged when orders 


were received to bring on no engagement at that 
place. It had been the intention of General Williams 
to take possession of the hill, but as it had become 
known that Gettysburg was in the hands of the 
enem3% the line was withdrawn and position for the 
night taken on the east side of Rock Creek. The 
Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment supported Wine- 
gan's Battery ('' M " First New York) during the night. 
Geary's division was posted on the left of the army, 
his line extending from the left of Sickles' line to the 
summit of Little Round Top, the Twelfth Corps thus 
holding both the right and left flanks of the Army 
of the Potomac on the night of July ist. General 
Slocum arrived upon the scene about half-past five, 
and General Hancock, in accordance with instructions 
received, turned over the command to him, and started 
for Taneytown to report to General Meade. 

Hancock had performed labors almost herculean. 
The very magnetism of his presence among the 
defeated and retreating troops gave them renewed 
confidence and courage, and when he had assigned 
the last body of troops to their position for the night, 
and saw that the force was strong enough to resist 
any attack that might be made until the rest of the 
army could be brought up, he started on his ride to 
Taneytown. During the afternoon he sent two 
dispatches to General Meade in which he favored 
the position secured as the best on which the battle 
should be fought, though the left was liable to be 
turned. On his way to headquarters he halted the 



Second Corps, commanded by General Gibbons, which 
he met about three miles from the battle-field, as a 
protection to the left of the line. 

The line of battle for the night extended from the 
rising ground east of Rock Creek, to Culp's Hill, 
to Cemetery Hill and along the ridge west of the 
Taney town road to the summit of Little Round Top. 
The Fifth Army Corps w^as on its way from Bonaugh- 
town, and the Sixth Corps just entering Manchester, 
thirty-four miles distant, had started on its long march 
for the battle-field. 

Among the interesting incidents of the first day's 
battle is the record of John Burns, a resident of 
Gettysburg. General Doubleday in his official report 
of the battle says : '' My thanks are specially due to 
a citizen of Gettysburg, named. John Burns, who, 
although over seventy years of age, shouldered his 
musket and offered his services to Colonel Wister, 
One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
Colonel Wister advised him to fight in the woods as 
there w^as more shelter there, but he preferred to join 
our line of skirmishers in the open fields. When the 
troops retired he fought wdth the 'Iron Brigade.' 
He was wounded in three places." 



IT was nearly dark when General Hancock started 
for the headquarters of the army at Taneytown 
and reported to General Meade, whom he found 
about ready to proceed to Gettysburg, where he 
arrived about one o'clock a. m., on July 2d. Hum- 
phreys' division of the Third Corps left Emmetsburg 
for the battle-field at three o'clock a. m., Burling's bri- 
gade with De Trobriand's brigade of Birney's division 
remaining behind to guard the outlet of the moun- 
tain and watch the Hagerstown road for any move- 
ments of the enemy in that direction. After a long 
and exciting march the division arrived on the field 

Major John T. Hill, 
Com'd'g i2th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 
{From a War-time Photograph— \%(>->,^ 


at midnight and owing to the darkness could not be 
given a place in line and was massed in rear of Bir- 
ney's division. 

The Eleventh New Jersey Regiment, belonging to 
Carr's brigade of Humphrey's division, experienced 
all the inconveniences of this march. They had biv- 
ouacked in a wheat-field near Emmetsburg when the 
news reached them that the First and Eleventh Corps 
had met the enemy near Gettysburg and were being 
driven back. Orders to press forward rapidly were 
received, and soon the column was in motion. On 
crossing Marsh Run, the troops took a road to the 
left, and were marching toward Black Horse Tavern, 
on the Fairfield road, which was occupied by the 
enemy ; but General Humphrey discovered, in time 
to conceal his presence from them, that he was on the 
wrong road, and accordingly caused the column to 
"" about face " and retrace their steps. This long 
detour was a severe strain upon the men, but without 
further mishap they bivouacked east of the Emmets- 
burg road about one a. m., and was subsequently 
massed in rear of Birney and facing west, the Eleventh 
New Jersey being next to the last regiment in the line. 

The next New Jersey regiment to arrive was the 
Twelfth, which with the Second Corps had halted for 
the night about three miles south of the battle-field. 
The column moved at dayhght, and was rejoined by 
General Hancock before it reached the field, which 
took place about 7 a. m., and was placed in position on 
the left of Doubleday's division of the First Corps. 


(General Newton was now in command of the First 
Corps, General Meade having assigned him there on 
learning of the death of General Reynolds.) In the 
order of ahgnment Hay's division — to Smith's brigade 
of which the Twelfth New Jersey belonged — was on 
the right, Gibbons, the centre, and Caldwell's division, 
the left. This displaced the Third Corps, which 
formed into column and moved still further to the left. 
This movement so full of momentous and important 
results then unforeseen, has led to a controversy that 
will cease only when all the actors have passed off this 
world's stage. General Geary, Avho had occupied 
Little Round Top on the night of the first, had been 
ordered to the right of the line, and soon after day- 
break (5 a. m.) vacated the position, w^hich was the vital 
point of the whole line, and to regain and keep posses- 
sion of which, brought on one of the most desperate 
struggles of the whole war. Sickles' orders were to 
prolong the line of the Second Corps, his left to rest 
upon Little Round Top.^ This is the great bone of 

* General Meade, in his official report says : " The Second and 
Third Corps were directed to occupy the continuation of the Cemetery 
ridge on the left of the Eleventh Corps." 

The Comte De Paris, in his work on Gettysburg, says : 
" Between six and seven o'clock in the morning Meade sent his son 
to Sickles with orders to take the position which Geary had just left. 
The order was most positive, and Meade has been blamed for not hav- 
ing attended to the execution of said order in person. * * * * 
When Colonel Meade arrived between eight and nine o'clock, to ascer- 
tain if the order which he had brought from his father had been 
executed, Sickles answered him that he could not distinguish the posi- 


contention : What were Meade's orders to Sickles ? 
Without entering into the discussion, which has devel- 
oped a wonderful amount of misunderstanding, it is 
clear that General Sickles did not deem his orders so 
explicit as to prevent the exercise of his own judgment 
in the matter. 

The ridge on which Sickles was directed to form 

tion in which he was to replace Geary. Nevertheless, like an obedient 
lieutenant, he had not waited for fresh orders, to extend his line to the 
left, and before nine o'clock Birney was deploying Graham's and 
Ward's brigades in the direction of Little Round Top." 

Doubleday gives this version : " Sickles, however, denies that any 
position was ever marked out for him. He was expected to prolong 
Hancock's line to the left but did not do so for the following reasons : 
First, because the ground was low, and second on account of the com- 
manding position of the Emmetsburg road, which ran along a cross 
ridge oblique to the front of the line assigned him, and which afforded 
the enemy an excellent position for their artillery ; third because the 
ground between the valley he was expected to occupy, and the Emmets- 
burg road constituted a minor ridge, very much broken and full of rocks 
and trees which afforded excellent cover for an enemy operating in his 
immediate front." 

Swinton in his History of the Army of the Potomac, says : " Sickles 
had been instructed to take position on the left of Hancock, on the 
same general line, which would draw it along the prolongation of 
Cemetery Ridge toward the Round Top. Now the ridge is, at this 
point, not very well defined; for the ground in front falls off into a con- 
siderable hollow. But at the distance of some four or five hundred 
yards in advance it rises into that intermediate crest along which runs 
the Emmetsburg road. General Sickles, thinking it desirable to occupy 
this advanced position — which he conceived would, if held by the 
enemy, make his own ground untenable — assumed the responsibility 
of pushing his front forward to that point." 


descended into low sfround which extended for four or 
five hundred yards to Little Round Top. In his front 
the ground ascended gradually, and on the crest of this 
rising ground ran the Emmetsburg road. Sickles first 
formed his line as directed, Birney's left resting at the 
base of Little Round Top and connecting with 
Humphrey's division on the right. 

The Second New Jersey Brigade (Burling's) of 
Humphrey's division and De Trobriand's brigade of 
Birney's division, which had been left at Emmetsburg 
to guard the mountain passes, received orders at two 
o'clock a. m. to rejoin the Third Corps, and began their 
hurried march. To them also had come the startling 
intelligence of a battle at Gettysburg, the death of 
General Reynolds, and that the First and Eleventh 
Corps had been driven back. At three o'clock, the 
column was marching quietly and swiftly through the 
streets of Emmetsburg. A short halt was ordered 
after a brisk march to enable the men to make coffee. 
The heat of the day before, and the sultriness of the 
morning, together with the long fast and the rapid 
marching had well-nigh exhausted the men, and the 
prospect of a " rest " was joyously welcomed. The 
little fires were soon blazing cheerily, but before the 
first cup of water had reached boiling point, an aide 
came galloping down the road with peremptory orders 
to push forward as rapidly as possible. Not a moment 
was to be lost. '^ Fall in ! " '' Take arms ! " '' Right, 
face ! " '' Forward, march ! " rang out over the field 
from the throats of regiment and company com- 


manders. There was a speedy mounting- of horses, the 
rumbUng of artillery was heard on the pike, and once 
more the column of Jerseymen pushed rapidly on. 
Crossing Marsh Run, Berdan's sharpshooters, who had 
been ordered to reconnoitre the rebel position, were 
seen lying along the fence in the road and firing 
occasionally at the enemy's skirmishers, in the edge of 
the strip of woods at the west. The column had 
reached the Union line just in time. Soon after the 
brigade had passed this point Longstreet had extended 
his lines across the road preparatory to his fierce 
charge upon Sickles' position. It Avas a narrow escape 
from isolation, if not capture, as the small brigade 
would have been overwhelmed had they come in con- 
tact with the rebel column, which would have been the 
inevitable result had they remained long enough at 
''rest" to have cooked and drank their coffee. Moving 
leisurely up the pike to about the point where Pickett's 
division crossed it the next day in making his famous 
charge, the rail fence was thrown down, and marching 
across the fields to the slope of Cemetery Ridge, 
Burling's brigade halted, and at nine o'clock ate their 
breakfast Avithout interference. In the mean time men 
were sent forward to throw down the rail fences that 
stood between the ridge and the pike. The brigade 
was once more at home with its old command. 

When General Meade had completed his reconnois- 
sance and given his orders to the several corps, Geary 
was ordered to take position on the right of the line, 
where Williams' division was to join him. By this 



move the Twelfth Corps was to be again united. 
Promptly on receipt of his orders Geary mov^ed 
out and took position on Gulp's Hill, joining 
Wadsworth's division of the First Gorps. At eight 
o'clock, Williams' division (commanded by Gen- 
eral Ruger) crossed Rock Greek and moved up 
the west bank of that stream forming on the 
westerly side of Gulp's Hill, and then moving by 
the right flank took position as follows : McDougall's 

brigade (the First) join- 

ing Geary, the One 
Hundred and Seventh 
New York of Gol- 
grove's brigade extend- 
ing the line to the edge 
of the woods, while the 
Thirteenth New Jersey 
Regiment was formed 
in rear in close column 
by division. On the 
■^ right of the Thirteenth 
New Jersey was an open space of about one hun- 
dred yards, through which coursed a small stream 
having its rise at Spangler's spring west of the Thir- 
teenth Regiment's position. This open ground was 
marshy, and the rest of Golgrove's brigade was formed 
in the edge of McAlhster's wood, pn the south. As 
soon as the line was established the men began con- 
structing lines of breastworks out of the fence rails, 
old stumps, dead limbs of trees, stones and whatever 


could be found that would impede the progress of a 
bullet. Lockwood's brigade, which had joined the 
Twelfth Corps on the morning of the second, was 
posted to the right of Colgrove, its right resting near 
the junction of the Baltimore pike with Rock Creek. 
The Fifth Corps was massed near the bridge over 
Rock Creek, on the Baltimore pike, in supporting dis- 
tance of the Twelfth Corps. By twelve o'clock the 
Union line of battle was intact, extending from Culp's 
Hill on the right to the base of Little Round Top on 
the left, the summit of which was used as a signal 
station. The Sixth Corps was still on its long march 
from Manchester. 

The line of battle as formed resembled more closely 
than anything else, an immense hook. Cemetery Ridge 
forming the shank, Cemetery Hill the heel, and Culp's 
Hill the end of the hook. It was an admirable defen- 
sive position, as it could be easily reinforced at any 
point by short marches, and its vulnerability was not 
to remain long untested. 

The course of Lee in so long remaining silent 
was a source of mystery to the Union commander, 
and he determined to assault the enemy on the right 
with the Twelfth and Fifth Corps, supported by the 
Sixth Corps on its arrival, and the order for the move- 
ment was given. General Slocum and General War- 
ren made a reconnoissance of the position and reported 
against it, and it was abandoned. 

General Lee, though quiet, was not inactive. He 
had visited Ewell during the night and ordered him to 


attack the Union right, but that officer objected on the 
ground that the Federals were massed in his front, and 
said that he should mtrench his position. The rebel 
army kept coming into line as the night advanced, and 
they were exultant over the victory of the day before, 
and confident of a more glorious result on the morrow. 
General Lee himself was infected with the same spirit, 
and awaited the approach of daylight with every 
expectation of success. Knowing of the great alarm 
the presence of his army in Pennsylvania had occa- 
sioned throughout the North, it only needed a victory 
over the Army of the Potomac on northern soil to 
bring about the full realization of his hopes. He saw 
peace won at last, the Southern Confederacy an estab- 
lished fact, his army victorious and marching triumph- 
antly to their homes. Infused with such a spirit, army 
and commander felt themselves invincible. At daylight 
the rebel line extended from Benner's Hill, w^here John- 
son's division was posted. Early joining him and front- 
ing the ridge between Gulp's and East Cemetery Hill, 
while Rodes' division occupied the town, and con- 
nected with Hill's corps on Seminary Ridge, which 
was disposed as follows : Pender's division on the left, 
Heth on the right, Anderson in rear between Marsh 
Creek and Willoughby Run. Longstreet with two 
divisions of his army were close by and moving for- 
ward, and by nine o'clock the rebel forces were all at 
hand and ready for action, except the division of Pick- 
ett, which was on its way from Chambersburg, and 
Stuart's cavalry who were moving to take position on 
the left. 

BvT. Brig.-Gen. Ezra A. Carman, 

Colonel Com'd'g 13th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 
{Fron a War-time Photograph.') 


On the Union side the same confidence was mani- 
fested by the troops, and as each corps came upon the 
field they reechoed the words of Doubleday's heroes 
of the day before, ''Weve come to stay!'' Thus both 
sides were nerved to the most desperate resolve, and 
how well they maintained it the record of the next two 
days gives abundant testimony. 

Small things produce remarkable results at times. 
As the Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment with the 
First Division of the Twelfth Corps was making their 
exhaustive march on July first under a broiling sun 
from Two Taverns, men fell out of the ranks in squads 
by the roadside for a brief rest. Four or five women 
from Gettysburg, who had fled on the approach of the 
rebel army stood by the side of the road, and involun- 
tarily began waving their bonnets and aprons. The 
men at first waved their hands in token of recognition, 
next they took off their caps to them, and finally the 
column broke into a hearty cheer. Tired and exhausted 
men rallied under the inspiriting huzzas, rejoined the 
column and moved briskly toward the enemy. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon the advance brigade 
of the Sixth Army Corps, came upon the field, and at 
6 p. m. the entire corps had reported after a forced 
march variously estimated at from thirty to thirty-five 
miles. This corps had done some remarkable march- 
ing during the past three days, and with their presence 
on the field, the whole Army of the Potomac was now 
at hand. The First New Jersey Brigade, General 
A. T. A. Torbert, commander, comprising the First, 


Second, Third and Fifteenth Regiments (The Fourth 
Regiment was on duty at division headquarters, three 
companies serving as Provost Guard and seven com- 
panies guarding the ammunition trains) composed the 
First Brigade, of the First Division, and reached the 
battlefield at 4 p. m. The brigade with its corps had 
marched fifty-five miles in three days, bivouacking on 
the night of June 30th at Manchester after a march of 
twenty-three miles on that day. The brigade was 
encamped in a meadow near the town, and the tired, 
wear}^ men sought their soft and rich beds at an early 
hour expecting to have a good night's rest, but it was not 
to be. About 10 p. m. the camp was suddenly aroused 
by the shrill, clear notes of the ''Assembly." Every 
man jumped to his feet and seized his arms. Soon the 
order came to march, and the '' Forward " sounded. 
'' Where ? " '' What is all this for ? " were the ques- 
tions asked but no one could answer. The orders had 
been to march to Taneytown, and the observant men 
in line noticed that the column was countermarching 
on the same road they had gone over. Ere long the 
column turned into the broad Baltimore pike and 
headed westward. All night long the steady tramp, 
tramp, was kept up, and when daylight broke, the 
march was still continued. There was no halt for break- 
fast, or coffee, but no one murmured or complained, 
and on they went, vmtil about one o'clock, when to the 
joy of every one the head of the column was seen to be 
filing into an open field. A shout went up ! This 
meant coffee and a little rest. Long lines stretched 



across the field, and the smoke of small fires soon 
showed what was being done, but hardly had the rear 
of the column gained its place before a horseman was 
seen coming at full speed down the pike ; his horse 
white with foam told all ; his mission was one of urgent 
importance. Riding up to where General Sedgwick 
was standing he delivered his dispatch — the x\djutant- 
General promulgated it orally : '' The Corps is wanted 
at Gettysburg in the shortest possible space of time." 
A thrill went through every man's heart. Coffee in 
various stages of brewing was emptied on the ground, 
and stacks were broken ere the message was finished. 
From mouth to mouth went the summons : '' Our 
comrades at the front want us," and but one thought 
animated all. Away the column went, and on gaining 
the pike, the stride of the men in their eagerness 
to get forward kept the officers' horses on a dog-trot. 
No more glorious sight ever met the eye of a soldier 
than this one as he looked back over that magnificent 
body of men as they marched up that pike on the 
afternoon of July the second. Ten miles w^ere passed 
over and Rock Creek was reached, but one mile from 
the line of battle. A short halt to fill canteens w^ith 
water was made. The great journey was over. The 
most wonderful march ever made by so large a body 
of troops had been accomplished — thirty-five miles in 
eighteen hours ! The New Jersey Brigade rested near 
the centre of the line of battle for nearly two hours, 
w^hen they were ordered to the left of the line where 
they arrived at dark. General Torbert reports that 


there were but twenty-five men absent when the ma;-ch 
was ended and these reported to their commands 
during the night. 

A strong picket line was sent out from the brigade, 
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Wiebecke of 
the Second Regiment, composed of Company D, 
Captain Lipfert, and Company E, Lieutenant Gustavus 
Peine, of the Second Regiment, and details from the 
First, Third and Fifteenth Regiments. They became 
warmly engaged with the enemy during the third and 
sustained a loss of eleven men. Colonel Wiebecke 
with the gallantry and heroism that always character- 
ized him in action won high encomiums from his 
superior officers for the gallant services rendered on 
this occasion. 

BvT. Brig. -Gen. Fred. H. Harris, 

Captain Co. E, 13th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 

{From a Recent Photograph.) 



longstreet's attempt to turn the federal 
left — the second new jersey brigade, the 


WHEN the line of the Third Corps had been 
established by the deployment of Birney's 
division in the position vacated by Geary, 
its right rested on the left of the Second Corps and 
its left at the base of Little Round Top. This rocky 
eminence, owing to the indefinite instructions given 
to General Sickles remained unoccupied, and its 
importance was apparently not then appreciated by 
him, or he may have thought other troops would 
form on his left to cover it. But, whatever the cause, ■ 
it was unoccupied except by the Signal Corps. 
Randolph's, and Clark's (" B," First New Jersey) 
batteries were placed in position in Birney's front, 
and were commanded by the ridge along which ran 


the Emmetsburg road. Seeley's, Smith's and Wins- 
low's batteries of the Third Corps were parked within 
convenient distance. The skirmishers placed along 
the Emmetsburg road and to the front of it had been 
engaged in a desultory firing during the entire 
morning, and the arm}' was momentarily expecting an 
attack from the enemy. The firing kept increasing in 
volume along Birney's front, and at noon he sent 
forward one hundred of Berdan's sharpshooters, sup- 
ported by the Third Mame Regiment, with instruc- 
tions to push as far forward as possible and feel the 
enemj-'s right. They advanced promptly to their 
work and soon became heavily engaged. The rebel 
skirmish line was driven back and a large body of men 
were found movinsf in column toward the Federal left. 
The reconnoitering force were in turn driven back 
with great loss, and General Birney informed General 
Sickles of his discovery, who ordered him to change 
front to meet the expected attack. 

This movement, which led to such important results, 
has now become the subject of an excited controversy 
among military critics. The simple facts in the case 
seem to be these : Between Cemetery Ridge, on the 
prolongation of which the Union line of battle was 
formed, and Seminar}- Ridge, occupied by Lee's army, 
.was a subordinate ridge of ground, along the crest of 
which ran the Emmetsburg road. The low ground, 
between Cemetery Ridge and Little Round Top which 
Sickles occupied, was commanded by this inferior ele- 
vation. The trend of this rising ground is southwest- 



erly, and the most commanding position along its 
course is the Peach Orchard at the junction of a cross 
road with the Emmetsburg road. From the Peach 
Orchard running easterl}^, the high ground continues 
for a short distance and then ends abruptly at a rocky 
depression known as the Devil's Den, between which 
and the Round Top, there is a defile or gorge through 
which runs a small stream known as Plum Run. Gen- 
eral Sickles had previously informed Meade of the 
nature of the ground in his front and solicited permis- 
sion to make the change, requesting that a staff officer 
be sent with him to examine the position. General 
Hunt, Chief of Artillery, made a reconnoissance of the 
entire line, extending his tour to the summit of Little 
Round Top, and returned to General Meade, w^hom he 
requested to personally examine the left of the line 
before approving of Sickles' proposed advance. Gen- 
eral Meade had in the mean time called a council of 
corps commanders at his headquarters near Zeigler's 
Grove, and was awaiting the presence of Sickles in 
obedience to the call. Sickles, not hearing anything 
from General Hunt, gave the order to Birney to 
advance to the new ground, and ordered Humphreys 
to take position on the Emmetsburg road connecting 
with Birney at the Peach Orchard. He then started 
for Meade's headquarters, but before he had time 
to dismount the sound of Clark's guns announced 
to the assembled corps commanders that the ^' ball 
had opened." Meade then accompanied Sickles to 
the threatened point of attack, and while he did not 

I q6 ^e w jerse y troops 

approve of the movement, saw there was no time to 
make a change, as Sickles expressed himself willing 
to do. 

The change of front General Birney was directed to 
make brought his division along the left arm of the 
angle extending from the high ground above the 
Devil's Den to the Peach Orchard, at the intersection 
of a cross-road with the Emmetsburg road. General 
Ward's brigade being on the left of the line, De Tro- 
briand in the centre, and Graham on the right. Ward's 
left regiment, the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
New York, was the extreme left of the line and was 
placed on the high ground west and north of the 
Devil's Den. This exposed flank was protected only 
by Smith's (Fourth New York) battery of rifled guns, 
which commanded the gorge, with the Fourth Maine 
Regiment still farther to the left at the base of Little 
Round Top, supporting it. On the right of Smith's 
battery was a thin belt of woods, and into the open 
ground (a wheat-field) beyond it Winslow's battery of 
light twelve-pounders was placed. Graham's line was 
formed along the Emmetsburg road, its left being at 
the Peach Orchard and refused so as to form an angle 
at this point. De Trobriand formed across the extreme 
point of the wheat-field to make connection with Ward 
and Graham, and in position to reinforce either, as cir- 
cumstances might require. Humphreys advanced his 
division to the Emmetsburg road, leaving only Bur- 
ling's brigade in support, which was soon after sent to 
reinforce Birney's weak line. By this movement a 



wide gap was made between the left of the Second 
Corps and Humphreys' right, which Gibbons filled by 
sending forward tw^o regiments of his division. 

The position of the Third Corps was now complete, 
and it was strengthened by the batteries of Bigelow, 
Phillips, Hart and Clark (" B " First New Jersey), in 
the open ground north of the cross-road and in rear of 
the Peach Orchard, and protected by a slight intrench- 
ment dug along the road which gave to it the name of 
the "sunken road." Ames' battery occupied the Peach 
orchard, supported by the Third Maine and Third 
Michigan Regiments, which formed in front of the 
Orchard facing south, while Randolph's, Seeley's and 
TurnbuU's batteries were placed along the Emmets- 
burg road fronting west. Sickles had been directed to 
call upon Sykes for a division of the Fifth Corps, and 
Hancock also ordered a division of the Second Corps 
to respond to any call for aid. 

Meade and his corps commanders expected an attack 
by Lee at some point in the line at an early hour, and 
his desire to anticipate such a move was his reason for 
his order directing the Twelfth and Fifth Corps to 
charge the enemy's left on the arrival of the Sixth 
Corps. That movement appears to have been aban- 
doned by the adverse reports of Generals Slocum and 
Warren, and Meade therefore changed his plans to an 
offensive movement by his left, which he was not, how- 
ever, permitted to make. Lee's delay in attacking the 
Federal position was a source of astonishment to the 
Union army and incomprehensible to Meade, who had 


been expecting- an advance against the Union right as 
more likely than at any other point, and the continued 
silence of the Confederate leader gave rise to a number 
of conjectures as to his possible intentions. 

General Lee was not idle, however, but time, which 
was of so much value to him, was being ruthlessly 
wasted. After the abandonment of the plan whereby 
Ewell was to attack the Federal right, he had formed a 
plan of attack on the left of Meade's army, Ewell to 
assault the right at the sound of Longstreet's guns 
while Hill was to make a vigorous demonstration on 
the centre. Ewell had expressed the belief that he 
could successfully assault the right as soon as Long- 
street should break through the Union left. No time 
seems to have been hxed upon for the beginning of this 
movement, and every hour's delay only strengthened 
the Union line. General Lee informed Longstreet of 
his proposed attack, but that officer attempted to dis- 
suade him from it. A long time seems to have been 
spent in controversy, and finally Longstreet plead for 
more time until McLaws' division, which had been on 
picket should arrive. 

Lee had abandoned the '' offensive-defensive " plan of 
operations, and to the objections of both Longstreet 
and Hood to the proposed movement said : " The 
enemy is here, and if we do not whip him he will whip 
us." * Lee was sanguine of success. His troops had 
been victorious the day before, and they, as well as 
himself were filled with a belief in their invincibility. 

* Hood in his letter to Longstreet. 



Three-quarters of an hour were lost waiting' for the 
arrival of McLaws, and when at last he reported, a 
further delay of several hours occurred in the march of 
the troops. This was occasioned by the instructions of 
General Lee which called for the masking- of the move- 
ment from the Federals, the design being to fall 
suddenly and impetuously on the left flank of the 
Union army, which Lee supposed rested on the 
Emmetsburg road. 

One incident was in Lee's favor. The Union cavalry 
which should have been placed on Sickles' left, had by 
a misundei*standing been ordered elsewhere, and there 
was nothing apparently to prevent a surprise move- 
ment but the skirmish Hue of the Third Corps. The 
situation seemed favorable for a repetition of " Stone- 
wall " Jackson's flank movement by which the Eleventh 
Corps was put to flight at Chancellorsville ; but there 
was an important obstacle to its success, which Long- 
street made a wide detour to overcome. This obstacle 
was the Signal Station on Little Round Top. The 
officer in charge discerned the marching column of the 
enemy, and at once notified General Sickles and Gen- 
eral Meade of the fact. General Meade sent General 
Warren, of his staff, to the Signal Station, and Sickles 
ordered Birney to develop the enemy's right with the 
result as previously described. There was no chance 
now for a surprise. 

Longstreet observed the signal station on Round 
Top, and knowing that the movement could no longer 
be concealed, formed his troops for the assault. 

200 ^'E ^V /ERSE V TROOPS 

Hoocrs division was placed on the right in the fol- 
lowing order : 

Laws' brigade, supported by Benning, on the right ; 
Robertson, with Anderson's brigade in his rear, on 
the left. 

McLaws' division formed on the left of Hood, Ker- 
shaw^'s brigade in front and Semmes' brigade in rear 
of Kershaw, constituting his right; Barksdale, sup- 
ported by Wofford, the left. 

Hood's division was to attack first, by crossing the 
Emmetsburg road and advancing along the line, taking 
the left of the Union line in flank and rear. As soon 
as that was accomplished, McLaws was to deploy 
across the road in two lines of battle and drive the 
Federals from the Peach Orchard. These instructions 
were not carried out in the manner designed, and the 
battle Avas fought on a plan which developed itself. 

General Hood, on whom devolved the opening of 
the fight, had received word from his scouts who had 
ascended Round Top, of the defenceless condition of 
Little Round Top, and the apparent ease with which 
the Federal army could be attacked in rear by passing 
completely around the larger mountain, and he vainly 
sought to secure a modification of the order, and to be 
permitted to move to the south of Round Top for 
that purpose. Three separate requests were sent to 
Lee, and finally Longstreet went to Hood and repeated 
the order of General Lee, which was to be strictly 

Birney's infantry line was a weak one, but his front 


at the angle was well covered with artillery while 
Smith's battery to the extreme left had a commanding- 
position. Birney having discovered the position of 
the rebel column, at two o'clock ordered Clark's bat- 
tery C' B " First New Jersey) to open upon them, and 
after the firing of a few rounds they disappeared. 
About three o'clock a rebel battery opened fire on 
Clark's position, from, the Emmetsburg road, about 
one thousand four hundred yards to the front, and 
the fire was effectively replied to, the battery soon 
ceasing to annoy them. The enemy, however, were 
massing their artillery under cover of which the 
infantry attack Avas to be made. The batteries of 
Reilley and Latham covered the front of Laws' and 
Robertson's brigades, and further to the left thirteen 
batteries were placed along the front of Seminary 
Ridge, their fire converging at the Peach Orchard 
and enfilading Sickles' line in both directions. At 
half-past three the columns of Hood were seen passing 
along Birney's front to the left. The whole artillery 
line on Seminary Ridge opened upon Birney's posi- 
tion, their fire taking Graham's brigade and Hum- 
phreys' division — then advancing to their new line 
on the Emmetsburg road — in flank. The Confederate 
infantry preceded by a strong line of skirmishers, 
advanced to the Federal position. The artillery which 
accompanied the rebel line opened fire vigorously 
upon Smith's battery near the Devil's Den which 
replied effectively. 

Ward's line was a very thin one and the left 


extremely weak. There was but one regiment to 
resist the Avhole of Lawns' rebel brigade— the Fourth 
Maine — and Hood having disregarded Lee's orders — 
either because he was surprised at finding a hne of 
battle extending from the Peach Orchard to the base 
of Little Round Top to oppose him, or believing the 
latter to be the key to the whole battle-field and 
easily taken, as his scouts had reported it defence- 
less — directed Law^s to bear to the right, and Rob- 
ertson noting the movement also bore in the same 
direction, and fell with crushing force upon Ward's 
line at its weakest point. Sickles at once called upon 
Sykes for the division which had been ordered to his 

When Humphreys moved forward to the Emmets- 
burg road, as directed by General Sickles, Carr's 
brigade was in the advance, followed by Brewster, 
Burling's brigade being in the rear. The severe 
artillery fire upon the fated Peach Orchard Avas then 
in progress. Seeley's battery which had been ordered 
to take position on the right of a log house on the 
Emmetsburg road, was transferred to the left of the 
building and its fire soon silenced the guns in its 
front. Turnbull's battery from the artillery reserve 
took the place vacated by Seeley. In the alignment 
of Carr's brigade, the Eleventh New Jersey Regiment 
was brought to the Emmetsburg road, its right rest- 
ing on the Smith, or Essex house, and extending 
nearly parallel with the road and about twenty paces 
to the east of it. In the rear of the Smith house was 

Bkev. Major A. Jun.'ox Clark. 

Captain Com'd'g Battel y B, ist X. J. ArtiHery. 

^Froin a Ji 'ar-tiine Phctcgiaph — 1862 .) 


an apple orchard, and to the left or south of it, a small 
peach orchard.^ The Eleventh Regiment was the 
extreme left of the brigade and joined the troops of 
the First Division. 

Soon after Humphreys had disposed his line to 
meet the expected attack of the enem}-, he sent Bur- 
ling's brigade to the support of Birney, as already 
stated. This brigade moved down to the rear of the 
right of Birney's division, where it was massed in a 
piece of woods south of the Trostle house, and on 
the margin of the road leading to the Peach Orchard. 
General Birney ordered Burling out of the woods 
into an open field and immediately on unmasking, 
the enemy opened a terrific cannonade on his left 
flank. For half an hour the brigade was exposed to 
a severe storm of shot and shell, when, at the solici- 
tation of his regimental commanders, he moved the 
brigade back about one hundred yards where they 
could have the protection of a slight rise in the 
ground. This movement, under the heavy fire of the 
enemy, was made in perfect order, but it attracted 
the attention of Captain Poland of General Sickles' 
staff, who not understanding it rode furiously up to 
Burling and demanded to know by whose orders he 
had moved his brigade. '' By my own," replied Bur- 

*This fact has given rise to the belief that the position of the Regi- 
ment was in Sherfey's Peach Orchard which was some distance further 
to the left, and at the junction of a cross-road which runs from the 
Taneytown to the Emmetsburg road. — Marbaker, Historian Eleventh 


ling. '' Take your command back to the position you 
left, sir," was Poland's excited reply, and Burling at 
once started to obey, but just at that moment an order 
was received from General Birney to detach two regi- 
ments to go to the support of General Graham. 
The Second New Hampshire and the Seventh New 
Jersey, Colonel Louis R. Francine, were detailed for 
that purpose. The Second New Hampshire was 
ordered to the support of Ames' battery in the Peach 
Orchard, and in taking position its right wing fronted 
the Emmetsburg road, and its left the cross-road in 
rear of the orchard, thus forming an acute angle. 
The Seventh New Jersey was ordered to the support 
of the remaining batteries, and took position to the 
rear of Clark's battery (^'B" First New Jersey). It 
had been at this place only a short time when the 
terrific and deafening cannonade, which preceded the 
advance of the enemy, began. The fire from the 
rebel batteries was sharp and effective. Many of the 
shells burst directly over the regiment and several 
men were killed'and wounded as they lay in the ranks. 
Trying as the ordeal was the men of the Seventh 
bore it bravely. Unable to engage the enemy they 
courageously submitted to the dreadful down-pour 
of missiles which broke upon them and from which 
their position permitted of no escape. 

The Fifth New Jersey Regiment, Colonel William J. 
Sewell, was next detailed. Reportmg to General 
Humphreys the Fifth was ordered to relieve the Sixty- 
third Pennsylvania, on picket duty on the Emmetsburg 

PoGition of 


Jvuv a. /SS3, 


road. Colonel Burling was now left with but three 
regiments of his brigade. 

The fighting on Ward's front to the left had been 
furiously kept up. The men of Robertson's brigade 
threw themselv'es upon the Federal line, and sought 
to envelop it by turning the left, the batteries of Smith 
and Winslow opened upon them, at first with case-shot, 
as they came nearer with shell, and when within three 
hundred yards with grape and canister. The infantry 
reserved their fire until the enemy were but two 
hundred yards away, when they poured a terrific 
volley into them checking their advance and throwing 
them into great disorder. Between the opposing lines 
Avas a stone fence and both sides Avaged a sharp contest 
for its possession. The battle was a frightful one. It 
seemed as though both Confederates and Federals 
were determined to fight until death before giving 
way. For more than an hour the lines alternately 
advanced and retreated, but Robertson, in his eager- 
ness to interpose between Ward's left and the gorge, 
so extended his lines as to expose his flank to the fire of 
De Trobriand's brigade who was on the right of Ward. 
So deadly was the fire from this unexpected quarter 
that the left of Robertson's line was thrown back, and 
in order to avert disaster Robertson summoned up the 
rest of his brigade to meet De Trobriand's fire, which 
relieved Ward from the enormous pressure upon him 
and he promptly advanced and recovered the ground 
which he had lost. 

Anderson's brigade at this juncture of affairs moved 



down to the attack on De Trobriand, but he was also 
repulsed with heavy loss. Benning-'s brigade came in 
to Anderson's assistance and the fighting was renewed 
with great desperation on both sides. 

Laws' brigade, General Hood accompanying it, with 
two regiments of Robertson's brigade moved directly 
across the g"orge and attempted to scale the rocky 
sides of Little Round Top. Ward had no troops to 
prevent the movement, and there was nothing 
apparently to prevent the capture of this important 

General Warren had not been long on Little Round 
Top before he saw the great importance of this summit 
to the Union army. As he saw the movement of Hood 
toward it he directed the signal officers to keep on 
waving their flags while he went for troops to defend 
it, and galloping out to the road he saw Barnes' divi- 
sion of the Fifth Corps moving to Sickles' assistance. 
These reinforcements should have been at Sickles' line 
an hour before, but they were in time to save Round 
Top. At the urgent request of Warren, General Sykes 
detached Vincent's brigade, and detailed Hazlett's bat- 
tery to accompany them. Warren returned to his post 
and looked upon the frightful scene below. The inces- 
sant roar of artillery and musketry ; the rapid move- 
ment of troops — now blue, now gray — as they emerge 
from the shelter of woods and rocks, or plunge reck- 
lessly into each other's ranks ; the yells, the shouts, the 
cheers which arise above the sound of musketry — all 
these are seen and heard, but to Warren, who sees the 


enemy moving up the steep sides of the hill he occu- 
pies, the terrible conflict below becomes painful, as he 
anxiously awaits the arrival of Vincent. Noticing a 
body of troops on the road he once more starts for 
help, and at his urgent solicitation Colonel O'Rorke, of 
the One Hundred and Fortieth New York Regiment, 
follows him on a double-quick. During Warren's 
absence Vincent emerges on the spur of Little Round 
Top, and before him is spread a panorama of exceed- 
ing beauty and, just at that moment, of terrible grand- 
eur, but he has no time to devote to its contempla- 
tion. As he posts his regiments along the rocky sum- 
mit, Laws' enthusiastic Alabamians and Texans are 
pushing their way up the slope. Vincent's men are 
soon in position, the Sixteenth Michigan on the right. 
Forty-fourth New York and Eighty-third Pennsylvania 
in the centre, and the Twentieth Maine, Colonel Cham- 
berlain, on the left. The enemy advance inspired by 
the sanguine words of their impulsive leader, and 
attack Vincent's centre. The rebels stumble and fall 
over the rocks and stones which impede their advance, 
but they push on, sheltering themselves as best they 
can from the close fire of Vincent's men. Unable to 
scale the obstructions in front. Hood extends his left to 
outflank the Sixteenth Michigan, which makes a gallant 
resistance but is being overpowered. Just at this 
moment, O'Rorke, with his brave New Yorkers, arrives 
on a run, and without any attempt at formation, they 
rush madly, bravely, desperately upon the enemy, and 
check their movement, capturing many prisoners as 

Co. I, 13th Regt, N. J. Vols., Inf. 
{From a Recetit Photograph.) 



trophies for their gallant charge. Hazlett, by the most 
extraordinary exertions has succeeded in placing his 
battery on the summit of Little Round Top. Dragging 
the heavy guns by hand, skillfully surmounting the 
numerous obstacles in the shape of huge bowlders and 
fallen trees, which were met with at every step, his 
plucky artillerymen performed a service as remai:kable 
as it was glorious. Training his guns upon the enemy 
below, he began a cannonade against the forces so 
fiercely attacking Ward, and as the sound of his guns 
was heard, a cheer went up along the Union line, and 
all knew that Little Round Top was safe. 

The battle which raged between the contesting 
forces on Little Round Top, and Benning, Anderson 
and Robertson's rebel brigades with the troops of Ward 
and De Trobriand, was of the most desperate nature. 
The two Federal brigades supported by Smith's and 
Winslow's batteries resisted stubbornly, but their posi- 
tion became more and more perilous. Smith leaving 
three of his guns, went to the rear and opened that 
section of his batter}^ firing obliquely through the 
gully. The rebels were everywhere. They were 
strongly disposed behind the natural defenses of rocks 
and ridges and kept up an incessant musketry and 
artillery fire. The* Sixth New Jersey Regiment, 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Gilkyson, commanding, was 
sent to Ward's support, and at the same time the 
Fortieth New York, Colonel Egan of De Trobriand's 
brigade. Proceeding on a double-quick to the most 
exposed point in Ward's line, the Sixth New Jersey 


took an advanced position in the gully and near the 
Devil's Den, where they engaged the enemy. The 
Eighth New Jersey w^as ordered in to the right of 
Ward's brigade, probably by General Birney's direct 
order, as Colonel Burling did not know what disposi- 
tion had been made of it, and the One Hundred and 
Fifteejnth Pennsylvania Regiment took position to the 
left of the Eighth in like manner, thus closing a gap 
which existed in the line between Ward and De 
Trobriand. Colonel Burling's command had thus been 
broken up and put into action at different parts of the 
line, over an extent of territory reaching from the 
Rogers house on the Emmetsburg road, to the Devil's 
Den, a distance of fully one mile. 

The engagement had now become general along 
Birney's entire front. Kershaw's brigade of McLaws' 
division followed by Semmes' brigade had engaged De 
Trobriand's line and finally attacked the apex of the 
angle at the Peach Orchard. Tilton's and Sweitzer's 
brigades of Barnes' division of the Fifth Corps moved 
in to the relief of De Trobriand's worn out and 
exhausted men, whose ranks had been fearfully 
thinned, and met Kershaw's attack with great vigor, 
but they were finally driven back, thus imperiling the 
entire position. 

The Sixth New Jersey and the Fortieth Ncav York, 
who had pushed down to the support of Ward's left, 
"fighting like tigers," were exposed to a galling fire. 
For two hours the Sixth fought the enemy in the 
rocky gorge, protecting themselves by the huge 



bowlders and ledges of rock, which are to be found 
everywhere at this point, and only retired from the 
field when ordered by General Ward to rejoin its 
brigade. The losses of the Sixth Regiment during the 
battle were as follows : 


Wounded — Major Theodore W. Baker. 


Wounded — Second Lieutenant Hart W-. Bodine, 
Corporal Smith Applegate, Corporal Thomas V. 
Dougherty (killed June 18, 1864, near Petersburg, 
Va.), Thomas Shields, William K. Morris, William 

Missing — Samuel Applegate, David L. Compton. 


Wounded — Corporal Charles B. Yearkes (died 
August 20, 1863), Andrew Holland (died July 26, 
1864, of wounds received in Wilderness). 


Wounded — Corporal Frederick Boorman, John Fin- 
erty, Henry Herman. 

Missing — Austin A. Skinner, Martin WiUiams. 


Wounded — Sergeant WiUiam D. Smith, Sergeant 
Eli H. Baily, Daniel P. Bendalow. 

Missing — Sergeant Edgar Hudson (supposed dead), 
Samuel English. 



Wojindcd — Second Lieutenant Levi E. Ayres,'First 
Sergeant George W. Jackson, Sergeant Charles G. P. 
Goforth (died September i, 1864), William Hartman, 
Edward Johnson. 


Wounded — Sergeant Adam Sheppard, Samuel B. 
Matlack, Charles Horstman. 


Wounded — William E. Eastlack. 


Wounded^Corporal Stephen Hull, Ambrose Kizer, 
Peter Wean (died July 11). 


Wounded — Sergeant John E. Loeb, Henry Hessel. 
Missing — William D. Jacobs, James W. Lewis. 


Killed — ^Corporal Benjamin F. Reeves. 
Wounded — John Lane, Dennis Laughlin, John A. 
Smith (died of peritonitis November 30, 1863). 


Killed. Wotinded. Missing. Total. 

Officers — 3 — 3 

Enlisted Men i 29 8 38 

Total... I 32 8 41 

Brig. -Gen. William II. Plnrose, 

Colonel Comm'd'g 15th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 

(^From Photograph afte^- the IFar.) 



The Eighth New Jersey Regiment, Colonel John 
Ramsey, when ordered into action advanced across 
the wheat-field, taking position behind a stone wall, 
from whence they were ordered further to the right, 
placing them in an exposed position, with the stone 
wall on their left, and a rocky hill on their right. In 
front of this position there was a thick brush, big tim- 
ber and rising ground, beyond which was a ravine 
with a hill on the other side. A few fence rails that 
were lying about were quickly seized upon and made 
to form a slight protection before the coming storm 
of battle should strike them. The only troops in front 
were a few of Berdan's sharpshooters. While some of 
the men were gathering fence rails they discovered 
Kershaw's column of troops approaching in line of 
battle to the attack of De Trobriand's position, on the 
left of whose line they were, and quickly gave the 
alarm. In a few minutes the enemy came into full 
view, and then ensued a sharp, severe and bloody 
struggle. The Eighth fought with the gallantry and 
bravery which proved them worthy followers of the 
heroic Kearny. Their ranks were rapidly thinned, and 
as they fell slowly back, their colors became entangled 
in a tree. The remnant of brave fellows rallied around 
them with cheers and re-formed to meet the advancing 
foe. At this point the Eighth was subjected to a severe 
musketry fire and sustained heavy losses. Colonel 
Ramsey was wounded, and the command of the regi- 
ment devolved upon Captain John Langston, of Com- 
pany K. A brigade of the Fifth Corps came into line 


at this time and the Eighth was relieved. Its losses 
were 49, out of about 1 50 men who went into action, 
as follows : 


Wounded — Colonel John Ramsey. 


Killed — George B. Hopwood, Anson R. Waer. 

Wounded — First Lieutenant Leonard M. Lambert, 
Sergeant John M. Freeland, Corporal James Van 
Wickle, James M. Day, Thomas Oldham, Henry M. 
Shugard (died Jul}^ 29). 


Killed — Sylvester W. Hardy, Charles Meeker. 

Wounded — Second Lieutenant Joseph Browe, Joseph 
Burroughs (died July 16), David L. Shipley, James E. 
Jones, WiUiam Robinson, John Jackson. 


Wounded — Charles E. Creelan, David James, Ira J. 
Smith (also missing). 


Wotinded^'^^coxidi Lieutenant Andrew J. Mandeville, 
Harvey K. Ammerman, Anthony C. Bull, John L. 


Killed — John Classer, David Cooper. 
Wounded — Mark Greengrove. 



Killed — Sergeant James Riley. 

Wounded — First Lieutenant Henry Hartford, First 
Sergeant Daniel M. Ford, Stephen D. Longee, Thomas 
Van Cleave (died July 17). 


Wounded — Captain Edward C. Nichols, Corporal 
John Cahill, Edward Quigley, William Riley. 


Killed— ]o\-\^s> W. Longenhuer. 

Woimded—Captsim Andrew S. Davis (died July 29), 
First Sergeant William J. Donnelly, Sergeant Obadiah 
Evans, John H. Gustus, Ervin Wilson, J. Irwin Lake, 
Elisha Bowlby. 

Missing-— Corpor3\ Andrew J. Hoppock (prisoner of 


Wounded — William R. Ralph, John F. Clouser, 
Patrick Riley. 


Wounded — Corporal Benjamin Murphy. 


Killed . Wounded. Missing. Total. 

Officers — 7 — 7 

Enlisted Men 8 34 i 43 

Total 8 41 I 50 

222 '^^^ ^^ J ERSE V TROOPS 

The Seventh New Jersey Regiment suffered consid- 
erably from the artillery fire of the enemy while lying 
in support of the batteries, a number of men being 
killed and wounded. A ball from one spherical case- 
shot exploding overhead, plunged into the neck of 
Corporal Eugene Pollard of Company K as he lay on 
his face in the ranks. His brother and file-mate picked 
him up for dead and carried his body back to the 
woods and rocks where the regiment first formed, lay- 
ing him down where he might be found again, when 
they returned to their places.^ One shell came 
screaming over the regiment from the left to the right 
and plunging into the ranks exploded, killing two or 
three and wounding several others, among the latter 
Second Lieutenant Stanley Gaines of Company K, 
who was detailed to the command of another company, 
which had no commissioned officer present. 

At last when the fighting was the fiercest at Little 
Round Top, the Devil's Den and the wheat-field, the 
Seventh became exposed to a shower of flying bullets 
at their backs. The regiment changed front to the 
left by the right flank, bringing them to face the 
lane and moving a few hundred feet over toward the 
Emmetsburg road, and nearer to Trostle's lane. Just 
at this time the artillery, in order to escape the advanc- 
ing lines of Longstreet's hosts, limbered up and came 
hastening to the rear from the Peach Orchard and 

* Corporal Pollard was only slightly wounded, and the bullet which 
the surgeons cut out of his neck he carried in his pocket. 



from the field. One battery coming straight toward 
the Seventh Regiment, caused the right four com- 
panies to separate from the line, thus causing a gap, 
and to avoid being crushed to death by the reckless 
drivers of the battery, were forced across Trostle's 
lane. The artillery became temporarily blocked in the 
lane, the anxiety of the drivers caused them to lap their 
horses over the pieces and caissons in front of them, 
thus effectually preventing the right four companies of 
the Seventh from rejoining their colors and the other 
six companies on the south side of the lane. Simul- 
taneously with this blockade in Trostle's lane, came the 
rebel lines into the sunken road, running from the 
Emmetsburg pike to Round Top, and with colors 
planted on this natural breastwork, - they opened a 
galling fire upon the Seventh New Jersey and the 
Second New Hampshire which, falling back from its 
first position at the extreme angle in the Peach 
Orchard, had made this its last stand, in the field about 
midAvay between the two roads. The right of the 
Seventh, which was then the color company of the 
regiment commanded by Captain Hilly er, rested under 
a single tree that still stands on the fence line of Tros- 
tle's lane. The regiment could not return Avith any 
effect the fire of the rebel line, as nothing but the 
slouch hats of their men were visible ; they were unable 
to lie down in the lane owing to the blockade of the 
artillery, and there was no other shelter for the gal- 
lant veterans of the Seventh, who had no thought of 
leaving the field without firing one shot at the enemy 


at least, before the guns were safely withdrawn. 
Colonel Francine, Lieutenant-Colonel Price and Major 
Cooper in a few moments saw that it would be impos- 
sible to hold the men together inactive, exposed to this 
concentrating and galling fire, which in a few moments 
would become deadly when the rebel riflemen had 
obtained a more accurate range. Believing that a 
charge on the double-quick, with hearty Yankee cheers 
would check the advance of the enemy's line and draw 
his fire from the retreating batteries, at the same time 
destroying his range, the order was quickly given : 
'' Fix bayonets ; forward, double-quick, charge ! " and 
this devoted little band swept across the field with 
shouts of confidence. As they reached about the pro- 
longation of the line of the Second New Hampshire — 
which stood like a wall, hopelessly matching its spent, 
feeble and almost exhausted fire against the long line 
of battle confronting it — the hopelessness of the Sev- 
enth's effort was apparent, and all knew that any 
further advance meant certain annihilation for the 
brave Jerseymen. A halt, a hasty adjustment of the 
line, and a volley at the line of dirty slouch hats in 
front, was the work of but a minute, and the rattle of 
musketry drowned all other sounds, while the smoke 
totally obscured the rebel hats and colors. 

At this point Colonel Francine, Lieutenant Mul- 
lery. Adjutant Dougherty, and over one-third of the 
Seventh were quickly placed hors die combat. The 
few who were still able to get away (wounded and 
unhurt) fell back beyond the Trostle house where 


they joined the other four companies, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Price, who rallied the 
scattered fragments and made another stand near 
Trostle's dwelHng, until he himself fell shot through 
the thigh when the command devolved upon Major 
Frederick Cooper. In falHng back from its most 
advanced position many more were struck by the 
shower of balls, among them Captain Hillyer who 
managed to hobble from the field with a flesh wound 
in the calf of his leg. 

The losses of the Seventh were severe, amounting to 
1 14, killed, wounded and missing, as follows : 


Wounded — Colonel Louis R. Francine (died July 16, 
1863), Lieutenant Colonel Francis Price, Jr. 


Killed — Corporal Parker S. Davis, Martin Van 
Houten, James Flavegar. 

I^d7?^//^t'^— Lieutenant Robert Allen, First Sergeant 
Frederick Laib (died July 7), Corporal Swain S. 
Reeves, William H. Kirby, Thomas Brady, Lewis 
Haag, Jonathan C. Stevens, Owen S. Clark (died July 
20), John Geckler. 


Killed— YmX. Lieutenant Charles F. Walker, George 
W. Berry. 

Wounded — Corporal Daniel ColHns, Corporal John 
W. Donnington, Sopher Powers, Wallace Waer, 


Patrick Carrigan, Stephen P. Williams, Reuben Pierce, 
William Noonburg. 
Missing — Thomas Flannery, Cornelius Vandervliet. 


Killed — Sergeant James H. Harrison, Sergeant 
James Brown. 

Wounded — Corporal Robert N. Beach, Corporal 
George W. Major, Corporal Alfred Husk, Stephen 
W. Edwards, James Keene, John Norman, Charles 
Wilson, Garret C. Bush. 

Missing — John Lynch. 


Wounded — Lieutenant James H. Onslow, First Ser- 
geant Walter Rotherham, Sergeant John T. Pine, 
Corporal Martin Cook, Corporal Samuel R. Stibbins, 
Joseph Deighlebohr, Mahlon Hackney. 

Missing — John Mushlee, Charles W. Guice, Charles 


Wounded — Sergeant Calvin J. Osmun, Sergeant James 
Roseberry, Corporal Edward Creveling, Corporal 
David R. Rockafellow, James McKeever(and missing), 
William H. Pettit, John S. Gulick, Robert Dairy mple, 
Joseph Weaver, Michael Barry. 


Killed — Henry Rourke, James Bennett, Jeremiah 
McNulty, Joseph Hall. 

Wounded — Sergeant James F. Renshaw (died July 


ii), Sergeant Edward H. Ridgway, Charles P. Piatt 
(died July 24), Thomas J. Labaugh. 
Missing — Edwin F. Piatt. 


A7//^y/— Corporal Thomas Flanni^an, Edward Mew- 

Wounded — James Fletcher (died July 8), Henry Van 
Riper, Thomas Walthall, Robert Dunkerley, John 

Missing-~\\\\\\?im K. Willis. 


Killed— 'So^w A. Dempsey. 

Wounded — Lieutenant Charles R. Dougherty, Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Clark, First Sergeant Jesse C. Morgan, 
Corporal William B. DaYis, Corporal Lorenzo Paynter, 
John Armstrong, Samuel T. Beckett, Henry F. Har- 
rold, Albert Johnson, George C. Lovejoy, Samuel H. 
Nelson, Joseph Wolf, Thomas W. Wyne, William J. 

J/Z^j-/;/^'-— Daniel W. Simmerman. 


/w7/£v/— Sergeant William A. Ezekiel. 
Wounded — First Sergeant Edward R. Holt, Corporal 
Ryerson vSpace, Joshua Leonard, Daniel Sheldon. 
Missing — Richard South. 

Wounded — Captain William R. Hillyer, Lieutenant 
Michael r^Iullery. Lieutenant .Stanley Gaines, Corporal 


Eugene Pollard, Corporal George W. Derrickson, Cor- 
poral John L. Denton, Lemuel Adams, George F* 
Bayles, Charles Y. Beers (died July 6), Abel Gruber, 
Jacob S. Hopping (died July i6), John H. Haley, 
Robert L. Jolly (died July 22), Theodore F. Searing, 
George Shipman. 

Missing — Joseph Ward, John Recanio. 


Killed. W^ounded. Missing. Total. 

Officers I 10 — II 

Enlisted men 14 77 12 103 

Total 15 87 12 114 

The Fifth New Jersey Regiment, Colonel William J. 
Sewell, which had been ordered to the relief of the 
picket line on the Emmetsburg road, moved by the 
right flank at a double-quick, and reached the position 
named by deploying as skirmishers. The right of the 
regiment rested at a white house, the left extending to 
a barn on the Emmetsburg road, the line covering the 
entire front of Humphreys' division. The Fifth was 
subjected to a severe artillery fire for full an hour, 
when the enemy's infantry (Barksdale's brigade) made 
their appearance to the left and in front of the position 
occupied by the regiment. Colonel Sewell at once 
notified General Humphreys of the enemy's appear- 
ance, and after an examination of the ground was con- 
vinced that the only place to check the attack was on 
the road and the crest of the hill which he held. The 
enemy first encountered the left of the line of battle, 
and pushed forward in such strong force as to drive in 

Monument ist N. J. Brigaoe—ist, 20, 30, 4TH, i 

5TH Rfgts. 


the troops on Sewell's left. The flank of the Fifth 
Regiment thus becoming exposed, the left of the line 
fell back and the ground thus surrendered was at once 
occupied by a lebel battery. Sewell held his men 
firmly to the position expecting an advance of the 
troops in his rear, but none came to his support. The 
Fifth was now seriously compromised. Exposed to a 
combined musketry and artillery fire which it was 
impossible to withstand, it was apparent that to remain 
any longer meant annihilation or capture. Rallying 
the regiment on the right Colonel Sewell skillfully with- 
drew it from its perilous position, at the same time 
covering Seeley's batter}^, which was firing in ixtreat. 
As the Fifth fell back in good order and amid a terri- 
ble fire of musketry and artillery, it was noticed that 
Humphreys' line was changing front to his rear and 
right so as to connect with the First Division, which 
had been compelled to vacate its position. The Fifth 
Regiment fought with great gallantry and confronted 
overw^helming numbers, but the strong and rapid 
advance of the enemy carried everything before it. 
Colonel Sewell and Acting Major Victor M. Healey 
were both seriously hurt, the former by a musket ball 
and the latter by a piece of shell. Captain E. P. Berry, 
acting adjutant, was so badly hurt that his leg had to 
be amputated, from the effects of which he died July 6. 
The casualties complete Avere as follow^s : 


Wounded — Colonel William J. Sewell, Captain, and 
Acting Adjutant, Edward P. Berry. 



A"//Ay/— Second Lieutenant Henry R. Clark, Samuel 
W. Bradford. 

Wounded — Corporal Thomas Hannigan, Charles H. 
Compton, John Haney, Michael Humphrey, John 
Miller, Patrick Ryan (died July 8), Henry Schweis, 
Patrick Tynan. 

Missing — Augustus F. S. Singleton. 


Killed — Corporal Edgar S. Van Winkle. 

Wounded— Q?ci^t?cv\\ Virgil M. Healy, Sergeant John 
Mclvors (died July 16), Corporal John J. Keeney, 
James W. x\ndre\vs, James Bell (died July 12, 1864), 
Roderick Egan, Michael Fox, John H. Ibbs, Annanias 
H. Lynn, George W. Trauger, George T. White. 


Killed — John Ryan. 

Wounded — Captain Henry H. Woolsey, Sergeant 
John W. Jennings, Edward Bessigkommer, David J. 
Huntington, Michael C. Manning, Michael McTigh, 
George Schriber, William Waldron. 


Wounded — Corporal John F. Chase, Andrew Jack- 
son, John Coyle. 

Missing — Corporal John H. Brady, Levi Hall, 
Edward Cassaday (died January 2, 1864, at Belle Isle, 
Va., prisoner of war), John Roaleff. 

Missing — Lewis J. Low (supposed dead). 



Killed — H enrich Troch. 

Wounded — Corporal Hugh Riley, Anton Burtz, 

James R. Clark, Samuel Haines, Eli Hamilton, 

Albertus K. Hibbs, Jacob Meyers, John Melcher, 

William Nelson. 


Killed — First Sergeant Theodore Sutphin. 

Wounded — Sergeant Richard P. Ogden, George 
Drummond, Jacob M. Frazer, James M. Welsh, Jona- 
than Wentzell. 

Missing — Corporal Samuel Ray. 


Wounded — Sergeant Martin Doyle, John J. Irving, 
David McManus, David Miller. 

Missing — Jacob Baier, John O. Heath (missing, sup- 
posed dead), David Stolter. 


Killed — Samuel Henselman, Patrick Kelly. 

Wounded — Sergeant Hugh Starrs (died June 29, 
1864, at Andersonville, prisoner of war). Corporal 
John F. Lee, George Rhinecker, Howard O'Daniel, 
William H. Ketch (missing, supposed dead), Joseph 

Missing — John H. Johnson (supposed dead). 


Killed — Captain Thomas Kelly, William L. Bennett, 
Edward Martin. 

Monument 5TH X. J. Vols., Inf. 

234 ^'^'^' ^V JER SE V 1 R O P S 

Woimdcd — Sergeant William K. Haines, Corporal 
Thomas Norcross (died October 30, 1863), Benjamin 
O. Birch, Richard Nesbitt, George Whitney. 

Missing — Alfred L. Britton. 


Killed — Sergeant Samuel Shackleton. 

Wounded — Captain Cyrus H. Rogers, William J. 
Button (died September 24, 1863), William H. Cary, 
Thomas Hampton, Charles B. Leonard. 

Missing — First Sergeant Edwin G. Smith, James 
Brady, John Easch (supposed dead), Nehemiah Sayers. 


Killed. Wounded. Missing. Total. 

Officers ... 2 5 — 7 

Enlisted I\J en ii 60 16 87 

Total 13 65 16 94 

The praise bestowed upon the fighting qualities of 
Burling's Jersey brigade is wholly deserved. General 
Birney says of them : '' I cannot estimate too highly 
the services of the regiments from Burling's brigade, 
Second Division — the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh New 
Jersey Volunteers. These regiments were sent to me 
during the contest and most gallantly did the}' sustain 
the glorious reputation w^on by them in former battles." 
The absence of any allusion to the heroic conduct of 
the Eighth Regiment is undoubtedly due to the fact — 
as Colonel Burling says in his report — that it was taken 
from him without his knowledge, and as Colonel 


Ramsey, who commanded the regiment was Avounded, 
no report of its services was ever sent in. 

Of the briUiant services of the Fifth Regiment 
General Humphreys who commanded the Second 
Division of the Third Corps, says : 

^' Colonel Sewell, commanding the Fifth New Jersey 
Volunteers, of my Third Brigade, reported to me and 
relieved the pickets of General Graham's brigade on 
my left, some of which extended over a part of my 
front. This regiment had been posted but a short time 
when a most earnest request was made by a staff 
officer of General Sickles that another regiment should 
be sent to the support of General Birney. At this 
moment Colonel Sewell sent me word that the enemy 
Avas driA^ng in my pickets and Avas about advancing in 
two Imes to the attack. ^ -^ * * Seeley's battery 
had now opened upon the enemy's infantry as they 
began to advance. TurnbuU's battery was likewise 
directed against them, and I Avas about to throw 
forward somcAvhat the left of my infantry and engage 
the enemy Avith it, Avhen I received orders from 
General Birney (General Sickles having been danger 
ously Avounded and carried from the field) to throAv 
back my left and form a line oblique to and in rear of 
the one I then held, and Avas informed that the First 
Division Avould complete the line to Round Top ridge. 
This I did under a heavy fire of artillery and infantry 
from the enemy, who now advanced on my Avhole 

'' At this time Colonel ScAvell's regiment returned to 


the line, having maintained most gallantly its position 
on picket, with very heavy loss. 

-:■!■ 4(- * -X- -X- * 

'' As I have already stated, my Third Brigade was 
ordered to the support of Major-General Birney, com- 
manding the First Division. The accompanying report 
of Colonel George C. Burling, commanding that bri- 
gade, exhibits the disposition that was made of the 
regiments of the brigade. In succession they, with the 
exception of Colonel Sewell's regiment, were sent to 
aid the brigades of the First Division. The Seventh 
New Jersey, Colonel Louis R. Francine, commanding, 
and the Second New Hampshire, were sent to the sup- 
port of General Graham's brigade, and the Eighth 
New Jersey, Colonel John Ramsey, commanding; the 
Sixth New Jersey, Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Gilkyson, 
commanding, and the One Hundred and Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania, were sent to the support of General 
Ward's brigade. For the part taken in the engage- 
ment by these regiments I must refer to the reports 
of the commanders of these brigades. That they did 
their duty in a manner comporting with their high 
reputation is manifest from the severe loss they met 
with — 430 killed and wounded. Colonel Sewell, Colonel 
Francine, Colonel Ramsey, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Price, officers distinguished for their skill and gal- 
lantry, were severely wounded. Colonel Francine's 
wound proved to be mortal. 

^ ^ ^-J- 4f -X- -K- 

'' Colonel Sewell's conspicuous gallantry in the main 


tenance of his post has been already mentioned by me. 
He was severely wounded soon after his regiment 
rejoined the main line." 

General Ward, to whose support the Sixth and 
Eighth New Jersey Regiments were sent, makes no 
mention whatever in his report of the valuable services 
rendered by these splendid regiments, an oversight 
that appears strange indeed, in view of the profuse 
praise bestowed on other regiments whose services 
were no better, nor more greatly needed. Captain 
Smith of the Fourth New York Battery, is an honora- 
ble exception to both General Ward and Colonel 
Tipton who commanded Graham's brigade (General 
Graham having been wounded and fell into the hands 
of the enemy) hi whose support the Second New 
Hampshire and Seventh New Jersey went. Captain 
Smith says : '' At this time the Sixth New Jersey 
Volunteers, Lieutenant- Colonel Gilkyson command- 
ing, and Fortieth New York Regiment, Colonel Egan 
commanding, came to our support. These regiments 
marched down the gully, fighting like tigers, exposed 
to a terrific fire of musketry, and when within one 
hundred yards of the rebel Hue the Fourth Maine, 
which still held the hill, were forced to retreat. Very 
soon afterward the Fortieth New York and Sixth 
New Jersey Regiments were compelled to follow." 

The Eleventh New Jersey Regiment, Colonel Rob- 
ert McAllister commanding, of Carr's brigade, was 
also heavily engaged in the dreadful conflict which 
followed the impetuous charge of Barksdale's brigade. 


as it broke through the lines at the Peach Orchard. 
They heroically braved the tempest of shot and shell 
which ploughed through their ranks, and the heavy 
casualty list attests their unwavering conduct during 
this dreadful ordeal. General McAllister, in a recent 
letter to the author, thus describes the scene : 

"We (the Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers) were 
in front of the apple orchard at the Smith house, 
along the Emmetsburg road. During this heavy artil- 
lery firing — we not being actively engaged — I ordered 
mv men to lie down. The shot and shell played over 
our heads and through the apple trees in our rear, 
carrying the branches through the air like chaff. The 
gunners and horses of our artillery were rapidly cut 
down. If the destruction of life could have been left 
out of mind I would have considered the scene grand 
beyond description. So exciting was it that I could 
not keep lying down. I had to jump up and watch 
the grand duel. In about half an hour the artiller}' 
ceased and the first charge of the rebel infantry was 
made in my front. We prepared to receive the 
charge. I ordered my men to ' Fire.' I was on the 
right of my regiment. As the rebels advanced our 
pickets came into our lines, and we received, the 
charge. I was wounded while passing from the right 
to the centre of my regiment — severely wounded by 
a minie ball passing through my left leg and a shell 
striking my right foot. I did not see a single man in 
the regiment flinch or show the least cowardice under 
that terrific cannonading or the fierce charge which 
we met." 



The Eleventh was assailed (3n the right b}^ Wilcox's 
brigade, and the charge by Barksdale at the Peach 
Orchard uncovered its left. To meet his attack the 
regiment was directed by General Carr to change 
front by bringing the left to the rear, which movement 
was as orderly and as handsomely executed under the 
terrrble fire to which it was exposed, as though on 
parade. This brought the Eleventh directly in the path 
of Barksdale's advance. Barksdale was mounted upon 
a splendid horse and was conspicuous by wearing a red 
fez. He rode to the right and foot of his brigade, 
with i-inging voice and waving sword urging his men 
on, and General Carr, recognizing the worth of this 
leader's example and enthusiasm sent an aide to the 
commanding officer of the Eleventh, directing him to 
bring down the mounted officer. Company H, com- 
manded by Captain Ira W. Cory was ordered to direct 
its entire fire at Barksdale, and he fell pierced (as it was 
afterwards ascertained) by five balls. 

The change of front to meet Barksdale's charge 
brought the Eleventh to the foot of the slope in rear 
of the Smith house, and there occurred its greatest 
loss, the casualties among the officers being unusually 
large. Colonel McAllister fell severely wounded just 
as he gave the command. Major Philip Kearney, the 
next m command, soon received a shot in the knee, and 
spinning around like a top fell, ten paces awav. 
Captain Luther Martin, of Company D, the senior 
•officer, was notified to take the command, but before he 
had time to realize the responsibility of his position, 


was killed. Captain D. B. Logan of Company H, who 
succeeded him, also fell severely wounded, and four 
men who were taking him to the rear were all shot 
down before they could reach a place of safety and 
Captain Logan killed. Captain Andrew H. Ackerman, 
of Company C, then assumed command and he, too, 
soon fell dead. The regiment was being cut up at a 
frightful rate, and began falling back. To check this 
movement Corporal Thomas Johnson of Company I, 
was ordered to take the colors — two color-bearers had 
already been shot — and plant them twenty paces to the 
front. He did so and remained there kneeling until 
ordered back, when the regiment moved with the line 
of battle to a position some distance to the rear, where 
it halted behind a hedge. 

The casualties in the Eleventh were heavy — over 
fifcy per cent, of the number who went into action. 
They were as follows : 


Wounded— QoXoxi^X Robert McAllister, Major Philip 
J. Kearney (died August 9, 1863), Adjutant John 


Wounded— Qor^ox2X Tyler L. Haring (died July 4), 
First Sergeant Joseph Burns, Corporal George H. 
Johnson, Emmet Burke, Christopher Snyder, Robert 
E. Mayo, William H. Weaver, Nathan E. Wappen- 
stein, Archibald Patten, Isaac Harlow, Daniel L. 
Snider, Henry McMahon. 




Wounded — First Lieutenant William S. Provost, 

First Sergeant William Hand, Corporal Charles A. 

Voorhees (loss of both eyes), Corporal Thaddeus 

Doane, Corporal Andrew Webster, John H. Rue (died 

July 19), Benjamin F. Jackson (died July 7), Albert 

Oss, William H. Smith, Fidelle Haase, J. A. Lowther, 

Samuel Stacker, Jacob Van Pelt (died July 9), John 



Killed — Captain Andrew H. Ackerman, Sergeant 
Corum Righter, Joseph Cheston, John Clark, Jr. 

Wounded — First Lieutenant John B. Fassett, Color- 
Sergeant David Schafer, Corporal Amos Rockhill, 
John Lindsey, Franklin Armstrong, Richard Howell, 
James K. Webb, John Crane, Charles Stevenson, Peter 

Missing — Charles Purdan. 


Killed — Captain Luther Martin, Corporal Isaac A. 
Hendershot, Randolph Merriman. 

Wounded — Lieutenant Sidney M. Layton, Corporal 
Manuel Runyon, Richard Burtrone, Edward Spell- 
man, Theodore Waller, David C. Keve. 

Missing— ^d.\N2iX(\ B. Nelson, James Beattie (reported 
died July 2), Frederick C. Tuers (reported died July 3). 


Killed — Thomas Tinney. 

Wounded — Second Lieutenant Silas W. Volk, Scr- 


geant Eliphalet Sturdevant (died July 13), Corporal 
Absalom Talmadge, Corporal Elisha F» Rose, Corporal 
Edward J. Kinney, Charles Bowman, James F. Gibson, 
Benjamin H. Joinier, James King, Samuel W. Morse, 
Thomas Scattergood, John H. Wilson, Jacob Miller 
(also missing), Joseph W. Walton. 
Missing — David Daley. 


Killed — John L. Cozzins. 

Wounded — Captain William H. Lloyd, First Lieu- 
tenant Edwin R. Good, First Sergeant Benjamin F. 
Morehouse, Sergeant Thomas D. White, Sergeant 
James C. White, Sergeant John F. Bartine, Corporal 
George W. Morton, Corporal Charles Dilks, Corporal 
Edward White, Corporal William H. Terhune, Edward 
Powers, James Thompson, Ephraim Robbins, William 
Collins, Miller H. Lewis. 


Killed — George S. Bird, George H. Bunting, Henry 
Elbertson, Michael Goff, Stewart Parent, Peter 

Wounded— ^Qxg^2i\\X, O. F. Holloway, Sergeant Ferdi- 
nand W. Krug, Corporal George Holloway, Corporal 
Israel Nixon, Corporal Smith H. Eldredge, Charles A. 
Koenig, Thomas Lowry, George A. McGuire, George 
F. Sever, Chapman Marcellus, William Emmons (priso- 
ner of war), Thomas Foutch, Abijah Thompson, John 
Lloyd, Joseph Fowler, Thomas Kelly (also missing). 




Killed — Captain Dorastus B. Logan, Edward Barber. 

Wounded — Second Lieutenant William E. Axtell, 
Sergeant J. V. Lanterman, Joshua Barber, Joseph L. 
Decker, Bartley Owen, John C. Nutt, John J. Sites, 
Timothy K. Pruden, Patrick King, William Halsey. 


Killed — Corporal James P. Stryker, Silas D. Clark. 

Wounded —^(tr^tzxvX. Thomas J. Thompson, Corporal 
Richard J. Merrill, Corporal E. M. Robinson, Corporal 
John W. Joline (died August 17, 1863), Corporal 
Michael Cooney, Francis Wassimer, WilHam H. Luce, 
James Finnons, Stacey Babcock, John M. Errickson, 
Alfred Barcalo, Daniel J. Buckley, George Cham- 
berlin, Henry L. MoUeson, Jacob L. ChcYalier. 

Missing — John Desbrow, Hugh Downey (died at 
AndersouYille, September 19, I864.) 


Killed — Corporal Jeremiah O'Brien, Corporal W. H. 
Morgan, Martin Bekie, Henry Kring. 

Wounded — First Sergeant Charles C. Reilley, Ser- 
geant Edward Appleton, Corporal Amon J. Foote, 
John Ardner, William Carson, Jr., Frederick Soldner, 
John A. Labort, Gersham J. Froate. 


Killed. Wounded. Missing, Total. 

Officers... 3 10 — 13 

Enlisted Men.- 20 113 7 140 

Total./ . 23 123 7 153 

244 '^'^" ^^ J ERSE Y TROOPS 

General Joseph B. Carr, commanding the First 
Brigade, Second Division, Third Army Corps, in his 
report calls the attention of the General commanding 
the division to the gallant and meritorious conduct of 
Colonel Robert McAllister, commanding Eleventh 
New Jersey Volunteers, Major Philip J. Kearney, 
seriously wounded (since dead). Adjutant John Schoon- 
over, who was twice wounded, but remained in com- 
mand of his regiment, and to Lieutenant John Older- 
shaw, acting aide-de-camp, to whom his sincere thanks 
are extended for valuable services rendered. 

The fighting had been furious. Ward, on the left at 
the Devil's Den, had borne the heaviest part of it for 
nearly two hours, and the onslaught of Benning with 
Anderson's brigade finally forced him back with the 
loss of three guns of Smith's battery, and a casualty 
list of frightful proportions. The attack on De Tro- 
briand had caused his line to recede. His ranks were 
frightfully decimated. The artillery also fell back a 
short distance to get out of the way of the advancing 
enemy, and if Kershaw had been able to press a little 
stronger success would have crowned his efforts. But 
just at this moment, when defeat seemed certain Cald- 
well's splendid division of the Second Corps arrived on 
the field, and Ayres' Regulars of the Fifth Corps 
followed in front of Little Round Top. Another effort 
to preserve the line was to be made. Ayres detached 
Weed's brigade — to which the One Hundred and 
Fortieth New York belonged — to reinforce the 
exhausted band on Little Round Top, where he 

Monument Cth Regimp:nt X. J. Vols., Inf. 




arrived just in time to learn that the gallant Vincent 
and the brave O'Rorke had both been killed, and their 
troops menaced by another assault from Hood's 
persistent veterans. Moving to the right Hood sought 
to turn the flank of the Twentieth Maine. He opened 
a sharp fire along the whole line, and Weed, who was 
standing near Hazlett's battery encouraging his men, 
received a mortal wound, while Hazlett in stooping 

down to hear his 
dying words, was 
struck by the bullet 
of a sharp-shooter 
and fell upon the 
dead body of his 
friend a corpse. The 
enemy moved to the 
right to get in Cham- 
berlain's rear, and in 
so doing was com- 
pelled to weaken his 
line. Chamberlain 
noticing the fact 
boldly charged upon the attacking force capturing 
over three hundred of them and before they could 
recover from their surprise at this seeming piece of 
audacity, Chamberlain, at the point of the bayonet 
forced the remainder down the mountain side. It was 
a glorious achievement, but only one of many of like 
nature which characterized the battle of Gettysburg. 
While this conflict for Little Round Top was going 





J'U LV 2,. JS/f3. 



on, Caldwell's division was advancing to meet the 
victorious troops of Anderson and Kershaw, who had 
driven back but had not penetrated the line of Birney 
and Barnes. The '' Irish Brigade " commanded by 
Colonel Kelley, formed amid the dreadful sounds of 
the conflict, and before going into action, the chaplain, 
a Catholic priest, ascended a rocky boAvlder and pro- 
nounced a general absolution for the whole brigade. 
At the word of command they dashed impetuously 
upon Anderson's line and brought his troops to a halt. 
Cross and Zook and Burke's brigades in turn assailed 
the enemy, but a movement by Wofford, who boldly 
dashed into the line in his eagerness to aid Barksdale, 
who had advanced in two lines of battle against the 
Peach Orchard, compelled Birney, Humphreys, Barnes 
and Caldwell's divisions to re-form on the main line, 
and relinquish the Emmetsburg road and the whole 
of the ground back to Little Round Top, to the enemy. 
General Meade had sent for reinforcements from all 
parts of the battle-field, and troops from the First, 
Sixth and Twelfth Corps Avere promptly moving to 
the scene. Hill had begun a lively cannonade on the 
position of Cemetery Hill to which the batteries there 
responded vigorously and effectively; Meade in his 
great desire to preserve the left had stripped the 
right of his line, by ordering the Avhole of the 
Twelfth Corps to the support of Sickles, but to this 
movement General Slocum warmly protested. At 
his earnest solicitation Green's brigade of Geary's 
division was permitted to remain on Culp's Hill, and 



by extending his several regiments in a thin line along 
the works was able to occupy a good portion of them, 
but not all. At half-past seven o'clock Ruger's divi- 
sion took up position in line with Doubleday's division 
of the First Corps and Birney's of the Third Corps, 
forming in two lines of battle, Colgrove's brigade in 
front, and McDougall in rear. Lockwood's brigade, 
which had arrived earlier, Avas led by General Meade 
into the very jaws of the enemy, and by their suc- 
cessful charge, enabled 
the new line to become 
more firmly established. 
This movement brought 
the Thirteenth New 
Jersey Regiment, Col. 
Ezra A. Carman, to the 
scene of conflict. The 
Thirteenth h a d been 
massed on the south- 
easterly slope of Culp's 
Hill at an early hour in 
the morning, when Meade's orders to charge Ewell's 
line had been given, and on the abandonment of that 
scheme, relieved . the Third Wisconsin Regiment in 
McAllister's wood to the south of Spangler's Run. 
The Twelfth ^Corps had thrown up a line of small 
breastworks along the crest of Culp's Hill, and in 
McAllister's w^oods, and when ordered to the left 
vacated them all except that part of the line held by 
Green's brigade of Geary's division on the summit of 
Culp's Hill. 



Meade had called upon every corps in the army, 
during the day, except the Eleventh, for reinforce- 
ments to Sickles' line, and they all moved promptly 
to the left, where they were put in at every exposed 
point. The wounding of Sickles, put Birney in tem- 
porary command of the Third Corps, but by order of 
General Meade, Hancock was placed in command of 
the corps in addition to his own. Hancock performed 
herculean service. His watchful eye detected every 
weak spot in the line and he promptly protected it. 
The attack culminated by the effort of Wilcox, Perry 
and Wright's brigades to break through Humphreys' 
line, and Wright succeeded in piercing the centre of 
the Federal position by the capture of four guns. 
Wilcox was almost in a line with him, but General 
Newton sent forward Doubleday's division of the 
First Corps who reached Webb's line in time to see 
Wright falling back, but they pursued him sharply 
and recaptured six guns which had been in the enemy's 
possession. By Hancock's own order the First Minne- 
sota Regiment bravely attacked Wilcox, and drove 
him back as far as the Emmetsburg road, but with a 
loss of half its men. 

Never before had the artillery branch of the service 
endured such a tremendous strain. The loss m horses 
and men was unusually heavy, and the abandonment of 
so many guns by the Federals shows with what 
desperation the fighting was carried on. Batteries 
were kept at work until there were not left enough 
men and horses to draw them away, and Bigelow's 
battery, which took position near the Trostle house. 


The map on the opposite page shows the Union line after Sickles' defeat. 



was deliberately sacrificed, the men firing canister 
until they could no longer load owing to the close 
approach of the enemy. Clark's battery ( '' B " First 
New Jersey) was in the very thickest of all this car- 
nage. When Kershaw's line penetrated into the Peach 
Orchard a South Carolina regiment moved boldly up to 
Clark's pieces. A Pennsylvania regiment lying in the 
" sunken^road " concealed, rose up and poured a deadly 
volley into their faces which caused them to retire in 
confusion. From 2 p. m. until 6.30 Clark's battery was 
in continual action, and when at the retiring of the 
infantr}^ column, it was compelled to fall back, one 
caisson and one caisson-body were left on the field 
there being no horses to draw them off. The loss in 
the battery was 2 men killed, 15 wounded, 3 missing, 2 
of whom, were taken prisoners. Seventeen horses were 
killed and five so badly disabled that they were 
abandoned. The casualties were as follows : 

Killed— T\\owi2i's, N. Post, Jr., Rensallaer Cassel- 
man. — 2. 

Wounded — Sergeant Leander McChesney, Privates 
Richard S. Price, Joseph M. Morris, ' Hiram A. 
Grover, ' Hiram Tierney, ^ Edson E. Sheppard, Patrick 
F. Castello, William Riley, Robert Stuart, ' John 
Truly, Anthony Collier, Joseph Baker, Chileon D. 
Richards, Leopold Smally, ° Stephen McGowan. — 15. 

' Hiram A. Grover, - Hiram Tierney, of the Second Michigan 
Volunteers; ^ Edson E. Sheppard, -^John Truly, of the Sixty-third 
Pennsylvania Volunteers ; and ^ Stephen McGowan of the Ninety- 
ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, were temporarily attached to the 
battery, and were not members of it. 



Missing — Privates Henry C. Buffum, Henry E. 
Davis, Daniel W. Laws — all prisoners of war. — 3. 

Colonel McGilvery, who commanded the First 
Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, describes the 
artillery fighting at this part of the line : 

'' A New Jersey battery (Clark's " B " First New 
Jersey Artillery) immediately on the right of the two 
Massachusetts batteries, was receiving the most of the 
fire of two or more rebel batteries. Hart's Fifteenth 
New York Independent Battery reporting at that time 
I placed it in position in a peach orchard on the right 
and a little to the front of the New Jersey battery. 
The four batteries already mentioned presented a front 
at nearly right angles with the position occupied by 
our troops, facing toward our left, the fire of which I 
concentrated on single rebel batteries, and five or more 
were driven in succession from their positions. 

" At about a quarter to six the enemy's infantry 
gained possession of the woods immediately on the left 
of my line of batteries and our infantry fell back both 
on the right and left, when great disorder ensued on 
both flanks of the line of batteries. At this period of 
the action all of the batteries were exposed to a warm 
infantry firs from both flanks and front, whereupon I 
ordered them to retire two hundred and fifty yards 
and renew their fire. The New Jersey battery was 
relieved, bemg out of ammunition, and retired to the 
rear. Captain Bigelow retired by prolonge, firing 
canister, and with Phillips and Thompson on the right. 


in their new position checked the enemy for a short 

During the fighting on Sickles' front the enemy's 
skirmishers kept up an annoying fire upon the Second 
Corps' line. Their reserves occupied an old building, 
known as the Bliss barn, which also commanded the 
line, and about five o'clock in the afternoon General 
Hayes directed Colonel Smyth, commanding the Sec- 
ond Brigade, to dislodge them. Colonel Smyth called 
upon the Twelfth New Jersey Regiment, whereupon 
the whole regiment arose to volunteer, when he indi- 
cated that a detachment of four companies would be 
sufficient for the work in hand. The barn mentioned 
was of brick, was five hundred and eighty-seven yards 
from the line, and it and the line of the Twelfth's 
advance were so completely covered by the fire of 
the enemy's skirmishers and artillery, that it was 
known that serious loss must result from the attack. 
Major John T. Hill detached for this service compa- 
nies B, H, E and G, under command of Captain 
Samuel B. Jobes, the ranking officer. 

The column moved out by the flank to the right 
of the Bryan barn ; then, formed by company into 
line. As the rear cleared the wall the movement came 
under the eyes of the whole brigade and of part of 
Gibbons' division, and of Robinson's division of the 
First Corps upon the right, and now in close formation 
the Twelfth begins its march. The artillery of Hill's 
Corps opened upon the line at once, the enemy's skirm- 
ishers poured in an annoying fire, his reserve from the 

Monument 7TH Regiment N. J. Vols., Inf. 


the shelter of the barn thinned its ranks, Jobes was 
wounded, Captain Horsfalls, of Company E, was killed, 
and 40 men out of the 200 were stricken down ; but there 
was no wavering in that brave column of Jerseymen. 

Bringing their arms to the right shoulder, and 
taking the double quick, with ringing cheers they 
burst through the enemv's skirmish line with the 
might of a giant, and in one bold mass closed down 
upon, surrounded and captured the Bliss barn, with 
the enemy's picket reserve of ninety-two men and 
seven officers, and bringing their prisoners with them, 
regained our lines. 

No bolder attack was made upon that well-contested 
field, and it deservedly gave the regiment a reputa- 
tion for gallantry which it never lost. 

The battle on the left had been a bloody one. Long- 
street's men, nerved to their Avork by the belief that 
victory would surely follow their assault and this be 
followed by the speedy ending of the war, fought wnth 
a valor and heroism unsurpassed ; but they had not 
only the physical force of the Union army to contend 
against. Every man in it who handled a musket or 
wielded a sabre felt that Lee's army was in their 
power, and never once thought of defeat. This battle 
ground meant defeat for one side or the other, and 
no man in the Army of the Potomac believed defeat 
possible for them. The driving in of the First and 
Eleventh Corps the day before had not disheartened 
them ; but as the news of the rout at the first battle 
of Bull Run created a feehng throughout the North 



that the rebellion should be put down at whatever cost, 
so the defeat of these two corps on the first day of July 
made the determination of Meade's soldiers to win, 
all the stronger. • 

The fighting for the day had not been confined 
wholly to Sickles' front, and though Longstreet had 
failed to turn the left of the army, yet sufficient ground 
had been wrested from the Union line to give a 
semblance of victory to his desperate efforts. The 
Third Corps had been defeated, but the UuLon line of 
battle was intact. \ startling report, however, came 
to Meade's ears from the right of the line, which he 
had stripped to reinforce Sickles. This was to the 
effect that Ewell had advanced and occupied the posi- 
tion vacated by the Twelfth Corps ! 

Correction. — In the final revision of the casualty 
lists of the regiments engaged in the second day's fight- 
ing, certain changes were made which were not car- 
ried forward in the recapitulation, and this omission 
was not discovered until too late for correction. The 
following tables show the losses sustained by the sev- 
eral New Jersey troops on that occasion, compared 
with the number reported present for duty on Jvme 
30. From the latter an allowance of fifteen per cent, 
for detailed men should be made to get at the actual 
number present for action : 





Battery " B " ist N. J. Artillery 

Fifth Regiment 

Sixth Regiment 

Seventh Regiment... 

Eighth Regiment 

Eleventh Regiment 























Battery " B " ist N. J. Artillery 

Fifth Regiment 

Sixth Regiment 

Seventh Regiment 

Eighth Regiment 

Eleventh Regiment 

Total _ 













GENERAL LEE'S orders for a simultaneous 
attack on the ri^ht and left of the Union line 
miscarried, but had they been promptly acted 
upon he would not have been any more successful. 
It would have prevented the stripping of Slocum's 
line, which would have made the Union position on 
the right still more difficult, if not impossible, to carry, 
and the Sixth Corps could have been utilized for the 
duty which called the Twelfth Corps away. Had 
Longstreet turned the Federal left and got in rear of 
the Union army, that would no doubt have made a 
great difference in the situation, but the left of Meade's 
line did not rest where Lee thought it was, and when 
after the most stubborn and heroic resistance ever 
made by any body of troops, the Third Corps was 
forced back, it was not upon a demoralized body of 


men, but to the original line of battle, to defend 
which Meade had more troops at command than could 
be used. It was really better for General Lee that 
the attack by Ewell was delayed, but the advantage 
he had gained was lost by the ignorance which caused 
Johnson's division to halt all night long in the vacated 
works of the Twelfth Corps. 

It seems sti'ange to those who have always consid- 
ered General Lee, par excellence, the one great soldier 
developed by the war, that he should have left Ewell 
wholly dependent upon his sense of hearing to fix the 
precise time of his attack. The instructions to Ewell 
were to advance as soon as he heard the firing of 
Longstreet's guns. The time fixed for the latter's 
assault, after innumerable delays, was four o'clock, 
and at that hour the fighting had begun in dead 
earnest along Birney's front. But another providen- 
tial circumstance favored the Union arm}^ The 
wind blowing directly from Ewell carried the sound 
of Longstreet's artillery and the Union batteries reply- 
ing to it, to the southwest, so that he did not hear 
it at all ! Nearly one hundred pieces of artillery 
on both sides kept up a continuous and rapid firing, 
not two miles from Ewell's front, and the deafening 
roar of musketry which accompanied it, made a noise 
loud enough to have drowned the sound of a dozen 
Niagaras, but Ewell might as well have been a deaf 
man on that occasion. His silence led Meade into 
the false belief that no danger was to be apprehended 
from that quarter, and he had therefore stripped his 


right, instead of utilizing- his reserves, to reinforce the 
threatened left. 

Ruger's division of the Twelfth Corps, on it arrival 
at the left, formed in two lines of battle west of the 
Taneytown road ; while Geary, who evidently misun- 
derstood the orders given him, moved to the extreme 
right and halted on the Baltimore pike, east of Rock 
Creek, two miles from the fighting on the left and at 
least a mile to the right of his position on Culp's Hill, 
with no enemy in his front. 

About six o'clock Hill opened with his batteries in 
pursuance of the original plan, on the Union centre, 
and Ewell, hearmg his guns, formed for the proposed 
attack. His line, it will be remembered, extended 
from Benner's Hill on the left which was occupied by 
Johnson's division, Early's division being to his right 
and fronting Cemetery Hill and the ridge connecting 
it with Culp's Hill, while Rodes' division occupied the 
streets of Gettysburg, and extending to the right 
fronted Cemetery Hill proper. It is also urged as a 
reason why Ewell did not sooner advance, that he had 
sent two of his brigades on a wild-goose chase on the 
York road, because of a report that a body of Federal 
infantry had moved in that direction, and he was 
waiting for their return. However, about seven 
o'clock, just as the Twelfth Corps was vacating its 
line, Johnson's division was moving down to Rock 
Creek, his march being concealed by the thick woods 
into which he entered. The nature of the ground was 
unfavorable for the use of artillery and Johnson left 
his on Benner's Hill. 


The line of works constructed by the First Bri^^ade 
of Ruger's division and by the One Hundred and 
Seventh New York and Thirteenth New Jersey Regi- 
ments of Colgrove's brigade, were practically defence- 
less. General Green had extended his brigade in a 
thin line to cover the position vacated by Geary and 
could furnish little more than a w^eak skirmish line for 
the defence of the entire slope. He also established a 
picket line along the bank of the stream, but Johnson's 
movements were unperceived by them. 

Gulp's Hill, which Johnson was ordered to assault is 
a thickly wooded eminence, and the approaches to 
the summit are obstructed by numerous rocks and 
immense bowlders. The troops of Williams had util- 
ized many of these rocks as a means of defence by con- 
necting them with a line of Avorks made of logs, stones, 
branches of trees and whatever could be utilized for 
the purpose. This afforded ample protection against 
the musketry fire of an infantry column and would 
have been difficult to carry. 

Johnson's line advanced with Steuart on the left, 
Jones on his right, supported respectively by Williams' 
and Nichols' brigades. Rock Creek, which separated 
them from Gulp's Hill, is a shallow stream, and easily 
forded. Grossing boldly they soon drove in the Union 
pickets, and Steuart advanced to tlie vacated works on 
the south followed by Williams. These were easily 
taken, but Jones who advanced to attack the left of 
Green met with stubborn opposition. Green, how^- 
ever, was hard pressed. Steuart was on a line with 


his works, and to prevent a flank attack, Green 
shortened his Une and extended it obHquely to the 
west, and sent an urgent demand for assistance. The 
fighting waxed hotter and hotter. Attacked by a force 
three times larger than his own, he held them all at 
bay and inflicted severe injuries upon the enemy. 
Jones was badly wounded and Nichols moved 
promptly up to his relief. At this time a brigade from 
the Eleventh Corps came to Green's assistance, and 
Wads worth extended his line to the right in support. 
Night soon settled down upon the scene and the con- 
flict ended save by a desultory firing which continued 
for some time. 

When Johnson's division moved down to the attack 
on Gulp's Hill, Ewell ordered Early and Rodes to 
advance and attack in their front. This movement, 
which should have been performed in unison appears 
to have been affected by a misunderstanding of orders. 
Early moved at once with the brigades of Hays and 
Hoke (Avery commanding), with Gordon's brigade m 
reserve. The Confederate artillery on Benner's Hill 
opened fire upon the Union position, but the batteries 
on Cemetery Hill soon silenced it. As the brigades of 
Early advanced to the slope of the hill, their movement 
was aided by the houses and other buildings which 
concealed them from the Union line, and when they 
reached the ascending ground the batteries in their 
front were trained upon them, but the guns could not 
be depressed sufficiently to do effective work. 

It was now eight o'clock, and Rodes ought to have 


been in position on the left to assault there, but that 
officer had some difficulty in getting through the 
streets of the town to the position he desired, and 
lost thereby considerable time. Advancing the bri- 
gades of Iverson, Ramseur and Doles toward the 
western face of Cemetery Hill a short distance he 
halted them, evidently intending to await the result 
of Early's attack. When the brigades of Hays and 
Avery emerged on the open ground to ascend the 
slope, they brushed away Von Gilsa's brigade of the 
Eleventh Corps, and rushed for the summit. Their 
left flank became exposed to the Fifth Maine Bat- 
tery, which poured an enfilading fire down their 
whole line, but without checking them. In an instant 
they were among the guns of Weiderick's and Rick- 
ett's batteries, capturing the former and spiking two 
of Rickett's guns. The order had been given to these 
gallant artillerists not to retreat under any circum- 
stances, but to fight to the last moment, and right 
loyally they obeyed. The fighting was hand-to-hand, 
rammers being used as clubs, and hand-spikes and 
even stones, being hurled into the faces of the enemy. 
This movement of the enemy brought their left flank 
in front of Stevens' battery, which opened a terrible 
fire of double canister upon them, and the Thirty- 
third Massachusetts poured in, obliquely to their line, 
a destructive musketry fire, but still they fought on 
desperately, vainly expecting Rodes' division to attack 
on the other side. In fact the Federal line was pre- 
pared for just this sort of thing, and Hancock momen- 



tarily expected Rodes' line to advance^ but his 
trained ear heard the desperate -fighting going on to 
the right and rear of his position, and as the enemy 
in his front remained stationary, he detached Carroll's 
brigade to the rescue of Howard's guns. Advancing 
with a firm tread they soon came in sight of the bat- 
tle and moving rapidly over the hill plunged with 
cheers and shouts into the midst of the enemy, who re 

treated hastily. 
As they went 
flying down the 
slope the Fed- 
e r a 1 batteries 
opened a raking 
fire upon them 
practically an- 
nihilating Hays' 
" Louisiana Ti- 
gers," which 
went into the 
fight one thou- 
sand seven hun- 

dred and fifty 
strong and returned with scarcely one hundred and 
fifty men! The Eleventh Corps' line was restored, 
and Carroll's brigade, which did such signal service 
was by the request of Howard permitted to remain on 
that part of the line. 

The sound of the desperate contest on the right and 
right centre reached the ears of the Union troops on 

2 66 ^■/^ \v JE R SE y troop s 

the left as soon as the firini^ in that quarter ceased, 
and about ten o'clock an order was sent to Ruger to 
return to his old position on the right as the enemy 
were in possession on the Twelfth Corps' works. 
The division promptly moved, Colgrove's brigade 
leading, and as they neared Gulp's Hill a skirmish 
line was sent forward to feel the position of the enemy. 
One man was captured in the old line of works in 
McAllister's woods, and Company F of the Second 
Massachusetts advancing across the open ground into 
the woods at the base of Culp's Hill and near Spang- 
ler's spring, captured twenty-three men, Avith whom 
they returned. From these it was ascertained that 
Steuart's and Jones' brigades held the position. Filing 
into McAllister's woods the brigade sought their old 
works, but as it was discovered that the position of 
the Third Wisconsin, which had been occupied by 
the Thirteenth New Jersev, and the line along Rock 
Creek, would be enfiladed bv the fire of the enemy,* 
the brigade was formed on a line about fifty yards 
to the rear. In taking this position two companies 

* Extract from Colonel Hawley's report: " Darkness coming on I 
received orders from you. sir, (Colonel Colgrove) to move out as we had 
marched in, and following the regiment on my right flank was marched 
back to the position which I had spent the day in fortifying, and there 
rested under arms. It then being ascertained that the enemy had 
advanced over our breastworks and occupied a rocky, wooded hill on 
my left, thus enfilading my position and severing our line, by yovtr 
order I took position perpendicular to my former line, so as to face 
the enemy's advance in this position, and there lay under arms for the 
remainder of the night." 



of the Thirteenth New Jersey, Company C, Captain 
Dayid A. Ryerson, and. Company I, Captain Ambrose 
M. Matthews, were refused, to connect with the right 
of the Second Massachusetts, the rest of the line of the 
Thirteenth running along the edge of the woods 
on a rising piece of ground fronting Rock Creek. The 
line as thus^formed was as follows : Thirteenth New 
Jersey on the right. Second Massachusetts centre, 
— , ^ ■ , Third Wisconsin 

on the left, Twenty- 
seyenth Indiana in 
reserye. The First 
Brigade, McDou- 
gall's, formed on 
the left of Colgrove. 
During the night 
also Geary's troops 
returned from their 
isolated position on 
the Baltimore pike, 
and joined with 
Green's forces on Culp's Hill. The prisoners brought 
in by the .Second Massachusetts were turned oyer to 
the Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment and Company 
D was detailed by order of acting Lieutenant-Colonel 
Beardsley, to conduct them to the Proyost Marshal of 
the corps near Two Tayerns. 

At midnight the Twelfth Corps had all arriyed and 
lay in line awaiting the approach of daylight to 
adyance upon and drive the enemy from their posi- 
tion on Culp's Hill. 





THE Confederates seem to have had httle knowl- 
edge of the topography of the countr}^ about 
Gettysburg, otherwise the failure of Ewell to 
follow up the great advantage he had so fortunately 
gained on the night of July 2d must be classed as a 
stupendous blunder. The left of Steuart's line was 
within one hundred yards of the Baltimore pike, the 
road over which Meade's army would be compelled to 
retreat in the event of defeat. The reserve artillery of 
the Army of the Potomac lay parked back of Powers' 
Hill on the slope of which General Slocum had his 
headquarters, while Meade's headquarters were but a 
short distance off. Furthermore, the presence of the 
rebel army in force on the pike would have created 
consternation in the Federal army. Unquestionably 
Ewell was ignorant of the advantage he had gained, 
and conversation with some of the survivors shows 

Monument 8th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 


that the rebels were greatly surprised at the ease with 
which they got possession of the vacated works, and 
feared that some Yankee trick was being played upon 
them. Of the great blunder Meade had committed, 
of course the)?- knew nothing, and this was only com- 
pensated for b}^ the rapid approach of darkness, which 
caused Johnson to exercise great caution in his move- 
ments. He onl}^ knew the enemy was in his front, and 
he determined to attack at daylight. The men whom 
he commanded were "Stonewall" Jackson's veterans, 
who had won many hard-fought battles, and the}^ were 
not easily to be disposed of. 

During the night a conference was held in McAllis- 
ter's woods, at which General Hunt, chief of artillery, 
Generals Slocum, Williams and Ruger were present. 
The artillery, twenty-six guns in all, had been posted 
on every commanding eminence to cover the enemy's 
position on Gulp's Hill, and only awaited the appear- 
ance of daylight to open upon it. 

As early as three o'clock Johnson began to form 
his men for attack, and Geary noting that some move- 
ment was contemplated by the enemy determined to 
assume the offensive. At day-break the crash of 
musketry was heard. Geary opened a fierce fire 
along his whole front and with deadly effect. The 
First Brigade sent forward the Twentieth Connecticut 
to penetrate the w^oods at the southern base of the hill 
and the Second Massachusetts and Twenty-seventh 
Indiana of the Third Brigade were ordered to charge 
the enemy in flank by Colonel Colgrove. The Union 



artillery opened along- the whole line, and from this 
time until ten o'clock a fierce, stubborn and desperate 
battle was waged. On the success of the Twelfth 
Corps now depended the safety of the army. Rein- 
forcements were sent to Gulp's Hill, Lockwood's bri- 
gade of the Twelfth and Shaler's brigade of the Sixth 
Corps both going to the support of Geary. The 
continued roll of musketry, the deafening roar of the 
artillery were listened to by the waiting army with ap- 
prehension. The long lines of wounded men being car- 
ried to the rear gave evidence of the severity of the 
struggle. The Reserve Artillery back of Power's Hill 
had harnessed and was made ready for any call upon it. 
The cavalry to the right were all mounted and drawn 
up ready for action. The Sixth Corps in reserve were 
under orders for an advance at a moment's notice. 
There was plenty of support for the right, should 
further help be needed. Still the battle raged. The 
enemy were driven back repeatedly and they as 
often returned to the charge. They were now able 
to note where they were and as they caught glimpses 
of the Federal wagon trains and ambulances moving 
down the Baltimore pike it seemed to drive them 
to desperation. Too late they realized what had 
been lost by the night's delay. They fought madly, 
heroically and with a bravery which only Jackson's 
men could show, but they were at a disadvantage. 
The Union line sheltered by the rocks and immense 
bowlders up to the face of which the rebels charged 
again and again, enabled them to inflict serious injury 



upon their assailants, and heavy as the Union loss 
was that of the enemy was treble. 

When the order was given at dawn for the Second 
Massachusetts and Twenty-seventh Indiana of Col- 
grove's brigade to advance and attack the enemy, 
there was thought to be a mistake in the meaning 
of it. Lieutenant Snow who brought the order from 
General Ruger was asked a second and third time 

as to the intent of 
it, and he repeated, 
the order is to ad- 
vance. Colonel 
Mudge of the Sec- 
ond Massachusetts, 
when he received 
the order, said, *' It 
is murder, but must 
be obeyed! for- 
ward I " and the 
brave Mudge with 
as gallant a body 
of men as ever lived moved out to swift and certain 
death. The Twenty-seventh Indiana were to advance 
and join the right of the Second Massachusetts, but 
Colonel Mudge when he reached the open ground 
moved at once against the enem}- driving them ahead 
of him, and though exposed to a deadly fire the Second 
reached the shelter of the woods on the other side. 
The brave Mudge was killed, and the casualties in the 
regiment were severe. The Twenty -seventh Indiana 



Regiment advanced gallantly, and the right companies 
of the Thirteenth New Jersey changed front and occu- 
pied the breastworks vacated by the Second Massachu- 
setts. As the Twenty-seventh reached the open ground 
they encountered a terrible musketry fire which checked 
them where they were. The left wing of the regi- 
ment extended to the [open ground the right resting 
in the wood, the line facing northeasterly. This regi- 
ment fought gallantly but was compelled to fall back, 

when the Thirteenth 
New Jersey returned 
to its former line and 
the Twenty-seventh 
occupied the position 
thus vacated. The 
fighting continued with 
great stubbornness. 
The enemy seeing the 
Twenty-seventh fall 
back formed for a 
counter-charge and ad- 
vanced across the open ground to the marshy banks 
of Spangler's Run, where they encountered the fire 
of the Third Wisconsin, Twenty-seventh Indiana, and 
such portions of the Thirteenth New Jersey as could 
reach them. The two left companies, C and I, were 
in the direct front of the advancing enemy, and for a 
short time a sharp engagement ensued, in which the 
rebels were repulsed. The Second Massachusetts 
from its position on the opposite side of the swale 


had an enfilading fire down their line which precipi- 
tated their retreat. During this engagement Captain 
David A. Ryerson, of Company C, Thirteenth New 
Jersey, was wounded, the command of the left com- 
panies thus devolving upon Captam Ambrose M. Mat- 
thews, of Company I ; James Parliament, of the same 
company, was struck in the breast from which wound 
he died a few days later, and Henry Damig, of Com- 
pany G, was killed. 

Walker's brigade of the enemy had been sent to the 
extreme left of the line to watch the movements of 
the regiments of Colgrove's brigade in McAllister's 
woods. A strong line of skirmishers appeared on the 
crest of the hill east of Rock Creek, and they took 
position behind the rocks and trees and thus picked off 
officers and men at their leisure. A small stone house 
seemed to be filled with them, and whenever a head 
was projected above the breastworks a bullet was sure 
to come unpleasantly near it. The Thirteenth New 
Jersey and the Twenty-seventh Indiana suffered most 
severely from this fire. A stretcher-bearer of the latter 
regiment went to the front, carrying a white stretcher 
with him, to look after some of the wounded lying in 
the edge of the woods, whose cries for water and help 
were agonizing. Just as he had scaled the works and 
before he had gone thirty feet to the front a rebel 
sharpshooter sent a bullet through his head and he fell 
Hfeless at the foot of a tree. This uncalled-for act 
exasperated the men, and they demanded that the stone 
house should be demolished. Captain Winegar of 


Battery " M " First New York Artillery, came down to 
the line, and after examining the position returned to 
his battery, which soon opened fire upon the building. 
The first shot penetrated the house and as the men saw 
the dust and sphnters flying about they gave a pro- 
longed cheer. No further anno3^ance came from that 

The engagement with Johnson's division lasted until 
ten o'clock, when a ringing cheer broke from the men 
on Gulp's Hill and it was known that the enemy were 
falling back. The Third Wisconsin, of Colgrove's 
brigade, advanced a picket line across the open ground 
in the front capturing a few men, and the regiment 
advanced up to the position formerl}^ held by Col- 
grove's regiments on the right of the First Brigade. 
Geary and McDougall also advanced and reoccupied 
their old position and the lines of the Union right were 
once more intact. 

The battle had been a hard one. For three hours of 
the previous evening Green, with his little brigade, 
had made a stalwart defense of the position he held, 
and to the valor of his men is due the safety of the 
Union army on the third of July. From the first break 
of day to ten o'clock on the morning of the third— full 
seven hours — the battle continued. The trees were 
mangled and torn with the shells and the solid shot 
which was hurled among them, and the effect of 
this dreadful day's work was noticed a year later 
when one part of this immense forest, where the fight- 
ing was fiercest, was found to have been killed. The 
trees were leafless. 


The sight, after the battle, in the Union front was 
frightful. The fighting had been waged at such close 
quarters and with such desperation, that there were as 
many dead rebels on the ground as there were men 
who fought them. They lay in many instances close 
up to the front of the Union line of works, and the 
bayonet thrusts in several of the bodies testified too 
plainly the terrible manner of their death and the 
ferocity of the contest. With the recapture of the 
position on Gulp's Hill, the fighting ceased on the 
right, save by skirmishers and sharpshooters posted 
along the Rock Creek ridge. The casualties in the 
Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment were twenty-one as 
follows : 

Killed — Henry Damig, Company G. 

Woiuided — Company A — Edward S. Smith. 

Company B — Thomas Ferris. 

Company C — Captain David A. Ryerson, Alexander 
Barnes, James Winter, James Parliament (died July 
27th), William Remington. 

Company D— James P. Ho watt. 

Company E — Corporal Thomas H. Williams (leg 
amputated), John Van Winkle. 

Company F — Cornelius Clark. 

Company G — Captain John H. Arey, Corporal 
Cyrus Williams, John Welsch, drummer. 

Company H — David Latourette. 

Company I — Lieutenant Charles W. Johnson (acting 
Adjutant), Aaron Chamberlain, Smith P. Brown. 

Recapitulation — Killed, i. Wounded — -Officers, 3: 
enlisted men, 17; total, 21. 



GENERAL LEE had now unsuccesfully attacked 
both the right and left positions of the Union 
army, but with a fatuity which seems incompre- 
hensible, he determined upon one more assault. He 
seems to have believed that the defeat of Sickles had 
seriously crippled Meade's whole army, and Johnson's 
success in getting possession of the vacated^ works of 
the Twelfth Corps gave him a foretaste of victory, if 
promptly followed up. The repulse of Hood at 
Round Top, of Hays and Avery at Cemetery Hill, 
and the failure of Wilcox and Wright to reap any 
substantial benefit from their advance almost into the 
Union Unes on the second of July, were regarded as 
mere episodes of the battle, not worthy of serious 
thought. The time had come, according to General 
Lee's reasoning for the one great decisive blow which 


should cud the war in his favcjr. But on this third day 
of July the entire Army of the Potomac was on the 
field, and so disposed that reinforcements could be sent 
to any point on short notice. Further the Union army 
felt that they had gained quite as much for their cause 
as Lee considered he had accomplished for himself, and 
though the stragglers, who poured down the roads to 
the rear spread dismal tales of defeat for the Army of 
the Potomac, the men at the front had no such feeling. 

When the final charge by the Tw^elfth Corps was 
made upon the enemy's lines, and they were forced 
back to the opposite side of Rock Creek, it stimu- 
lated the tone of the whole arm}^ Confident of success 
before they were sanguine now, and the further move- 
ments of Lee were awaited with impatience. The deep 
stillness which settled upon the battle-field after the 
cessation of the fighting on the right soon became 
oppressive. It was the prevalent belief that Lee 
intended a more desperate move than any yet planned 
but w^here the blow would fall could only be conject- 
ured. As the centre of the line had so far escaped a 
direct assault the feeling grew^ that there the blow 
would fall, and the intuition which thus selected the 
point of attack was confirmed a few liours later.. 

General Lee had determined the night before to 
assault the centre of Meade's line, and to Longstreet's 
corps he assigned the task. These troops had borne 
the brunt of the fighting the day before, and their 
ranks were terribly decimated. It was impossible that 
they could successfully accomplish the work Lee had 

■'m,^<k'/M'/U >i y I „i 'i ' /^Am '!J1'j'ii n 11 .^i^.'nii 

Monument iith Rkgt. N. J, Vols., Inf. 


in hand, and further they could not well be spared 
from the positions they then occupied. The only 
division that had not participated in the battle at any 
time was Pickett's, and he was accordingly selected to 
lead the charge. Pickett had arrived within a short 
distance of the battle-field the night before, after a 
forced march from Chambersburg, and at seven o'clock 
on the morning of the third he reported to General 
Longstreet. The interviews between Longstreet and 
Lee were frequent. The former was opposed to the 
contemplated movement and interposed every possible 
objection to the determination of Lee to make the 
assault. But the rebel chieftain was immovable. He 
saw no reason for depression, but believed everything 
was favorable for success. He construed the capture 
of Sickles' advanced line as a victory, and in his official 
report uses this language : 

" After a severe struggle Longstreet succeeded in 
gaining possession of and holding the desired ground. 
Ew^ell also carried some of the strong positions which 
he assailed, and the result was such as to lead to the 
belief thaj: he w^ould ultimately be able to dislodge the 
enemy. The battle ceased at dark. These partial 
successes determined me to continue the assault the 
next day." 

Argvuiient and protestation covild not move the man 
who thus summed up the results of the previous day's 
fighting, and Longstreet was compelled to notify Pickett 
of the work that had been assigned him to do. 

General Lee's line of battle at daylight on the third. 


was much the same as when night closed in and ended 
the conflict of the second day. Laws' and Robertson's 
brigades were in front of the Round Tops, Wofford in 
the centre west of the wheat-field, and Kershaw on the 
left, occupying the Peach Orchard. The rest of Long- 
street's corps stretched along the line of Seminary 
Ridge, and Hill occupied his former position on the 
left of Longstreet. Ewell was at that moment engaged 
in a death struggle on the extreme left, but the result 
was not to be awaited — victory there was confidently 
anticipated. It was ten o'clock before Lee gave the 
final order to form for the attack. With Longstreet he 
had fully reconnoitred the ground, and that officer again 
tried to dissuade him from the proposed movement. 
Longstreet scented defeat. He was opposed to an offen- 
sive movement and desired to turn the flank of Meade, 
and compel him to attack the southern army. But all 
in vain. It was finally determined to assail the Union 
line with a strong column, under cover of a heavy 
artillery fire, and the orders were given. Colonel Alex- 
ander posted the Confederate artillery along the ridge 
which Humphreys had vainly tried to hold the day 
before, extending from the Peach Orchard on the right 
to the Codori house on the left. A battery on the right 
of the Peach Orchard, and the Washington Artillery 
with Bearing and Cabell's batteries stationed on the 
left were to aid in the attack. This vast congrega- 
tion of batteries comprised one hundred and thirty- 
eight pieces of cannon, and behind this wall of iron the 
division of Pickett, with the troops that were to sup- 


port him, formed for the impending- collision. Pickett's 
division was composed of five brigades, three only of 
which were upon the field — Garnett's, Armistead's and 
Kemper's — comprising in all about four thousand five 
hundred men. They formed behind the rising surface 
of the ground, Kemper and Garnett in the advance, 
Armistead in rear, and lay down to await the order 
for the charge to be made. A battery of light artillery 
was detailed to accompany them. To support Pickett, 
Hill contributed the brigades of Wilcox, Perry and 
Wright, and Heth's division, composed of the bri- 
gades of Archer, Pettigrew, Davis and Brocken- 
borough, with the brigades of Scales and Lane added, 
made up a total attacking force of fully fifteen thou- 
sand men. This mighty host, supported by the con- 
centrated fire of the largest artillery force ever gathered 
together, was to launch itself upon the front of the 
Second Corps and break the Union line in two. 

The position of the Second Corps which was to 
be the scene of the coming conflict was an admirable 
one for defence. In its entire length from Zeigler's 
Grove — which separates Cemetery Hill from Ceme- 
tery Ridge — to the copse of trees, where the left of 
Pickett's line halted, is considerably less than a 
mile. In the advanced edge of the wood known 
as Zeigler's Grove — the extreme right of the Sec- 
ond Corps' line — Woodruff's battery ( ** I " First 
United States Artillery) was stationed, supported 
by the One Hundred and Eighth New York. 
On the left of this position, a natural out- 


W^^//|l III 

a "ward 

_^JCALES0 of tS ^ 

u lUi 

W>*^ I 

^ iiiiiiiiin 

TR£ET3 CHARGE -Jo'-Y 3 <-<? &3 - gf^ a M F LT t r Me ^■■ 


cropping of rock forms a low wall, and at a 
distance of fifty yards from the grove, near Bryan's 
well, a stone wall had been constructed on the natural 
rock, and continued for about three hundred and fifty 
yards. Hays' division of the Second Corps occupied 
this position being formed in two lines of battle. The 
left consisted of Smyth's brigade, posted in the follow- 
ing order: The Twelfth New Jerse}' on the right, 
the First Delaware on the left of the Twelfth, the 
Fourteenth Connecticut next. The One Hundred 
and Eleventh New York and One Hundred and 
Twent3'-fifth New York of the Third Brigade were 
immediately in the rear of these regiments, on higher 
ground which enabled them to fire over the front line. 
The other regiments of the Third Brigade and Car- 
roll's brigade were also in the rear of the line of 
battle for a time, but subsequently became hotly 
engaged. Arnold's Rhode Island batter}^ occupied 
a position on the left of Smyth, and in front of Arnold 
the stone wall runs due west, where it connects with 
a post and rail fence, thus forming a sharp angle. 
Gibbon's division connected with Ha3's, Webb's bri- 
gade, on whose line Cushing's battery was posted, 
formed the right, and Hall's brigade with Brown's 
Rhode Island battery, the centre, and Harrow's bri- 
gade with Rorty's New York batter}', the left. The 
rail fence which skirted the natural rock surface 
before these brigades, was thrown down and the 
rails used as a slight protection from musketry fire. 
Doubleday's division of the First Corps were to the 



left of Gibbon, Stannard's Vermont brigade being- in 
a clump of bushes and trees a short distance in 
advance, concealed from the enemy's view. This 
small space of territory was destined to become the 
scene of one of the fiercest conflicts of modern times. 
The lines of men thus grouped together were to be 
subjected to a rain of missiles that no body of men ever 
before experienced, and their courage and valor was 
to be put to the severest test known in the annals 
of modern Avarfare. The Union line as continued 
to the left, comprised the following: To the left of 
Doubleday was Caldwell's gallant division of the 
Second Corps, which suffered so severely the day 
before in trying to repair Sickles' broken line. Birney's 
division of the Third Corps continued the line south- 
ward and the Fifth Corps, whose line now extended 
to the summit of Round Top itself, completed this 
front, with the Sixth Corps mainly in reserve. At 
every point where artillery could be used a battery 
was posted. McGilvery had stationed forty guns 
along this line in addition to the thirty guns of the 
Second Corps which were commanded by Captain 
John G. Hazzard. 

During the time Lee was preparing his column 
for attack, General Hunt, chief of artillery, was 
examining the batteries along the Union line. He 
made the best disposition possible of the artillery 
at his command, and stationed the Reserve Artillery 
within easy supporting distance. Sharp skirmish 
firing broke out occasionally along the Union front. 


and early in the day while the heavy firing on 
the right was going on, the enemy in front of the 
Second Corps reoccupied the Bliss barn and the 
Twelfth New Jersey was again called upon to dis- 
possess them. Companies K, F, D, C and A were 
selected, and under command of Captain Richard S. 
Thompson of Company K, the charge was success- 
fully made and a number of prisoners taken. The barn 
was finally burned by the Fourteenth Connecticut. 

The minutes grew into hours and the Federals waited 
impatiently for some sign to show what the enemy 
intended to do. With the cessation of the firing on the 
right the stillness grew oppressive. The same feeling 
of impatience prevailed among Pickett's men. The)^ 
had been formed in line for their charge ever since 
ten o'clock and the delay was growing tedious. 
Finally the word passed that all was ready. Long- 
street dreaded the ordeal. Pickett was anxious to 
begin. Longstreet sought to impose upon Colonel 
Alexander the duty of notifying Pickett what to do, 
that officer bluntly refused, saying that unless the 
charge was to be made he should not order the artil- 
lery to fire. Suddenly, at one o'clock, two shots were 
fired by the Washington Artillery — the signal for the 
cannonade to begin. At once, as though the gunners 
had impatiently waited for the signal, there was vom- 
ited from the deep throats of the one hundred and 
thirty-eight cannon along the Emmetsburg road a 
volume of flame, and the air was filled with flying 
missiles on their death-dealing mission. For fifteen 


minutes the Federal batteries remained silent, and then 

from eighty guns along the Union line, all that could 

be brought to bear on the position, an answering 

refrain went up, which, combined with the volume of 

sound proceeding from the enemy, created an ensemble 

that was terrifying even to ears that had endured the 

dreadful sound of artillery warfare for months. But 

never before, nor since, had those who listened to the 

sharp detonation of those two hundred and eighteen 

guns passed through a more harrowing experience. 

The ground was ploughed into furrows. Exploding 

shells endangered everything within their range ; the 

house used by General Meade for his headquarters 

was in the very line of this terrible, dreadful and 

merciless storm of iron nail. Horses tied to the fences 

were killed by scores or, badly wounded, filled the 

air with their shrieks of terror and fright. It was 

chaos come again. General Meade abandoned his 

headquarters and sought refuge with General Slo- 

cum at Powers' Hill. Caisson after caisson, being 

struck by the enemy's shells, exploded, but the line 

of infantry remained as stationary and immovable as 

the rocks behind which they sought shelter. A shell 

would penetrate their front occasionally and lessen 

their number, but none moved from their places. The 

artillerists, more exposed suffered greatly ; horses 

were killed in large numbers, and the destruction of 

gun carriages, caissons and limbers was unusually 

heavy. For one hour and a-half this terrific duel had 

been kept up, when, at half-past two General Hunt 


ordered the firing to be gradually slackened, and in a 
few minutes nothing could be heard but the firing of 
the rebel guns. Replacing the disabled batteries with 
others from the Artillery Reserve and replenishing 
the ammunition boxes for the infantry attack which 
all knew would follow, the Union artillery line was 

The accuracy of the fire from the Federal batteries 
had inflicted serious damage on the enemy's artillery, 
and had also caused much destruction of life among 
the infantry. Armistead's brigade was compelled to 
change its position three different times to get out of 
the range of the Union guns and with sighs of relief 
they noted the slackening fire from Meade's line. It 
was now three o'clock. Pickett formed his men for the 
charge and reporting to Longstreet asked for the word 
of command. He would not give it, and Pickett, with a 
gleam of fire in his eyes said, '' I shall go forward, sir," 
to which Longstreet simply nodded his head, and the 
impetuous and brave southerner returned to his 
division. Just as the rebel line proceeded on its march, 
Hunt ordered up to the threatened point of attack 
Fitzhugh's, Weir's, Cowan's, and Parson's (''A" First 
New Jersey Artillery) batteries, which advanced 
rapidly into position. 

Pickett impatiently awaited the opportunity to 
advance. In a short time it came in a message from 
Colonel Alexander to the effect that the Federal 
battery had been silenced. The line was formed — 
Kemper on the right, Garnett in the centre, Armistead 


on the left — and as it swept through the artillery 
and came into full view of the Federals, a thrill of 
admiration went through the breast of every man 
gazing upon the magnificent spectacle. Marching in 
close order, with measured steps, as though on parade, 
it moved forward deliberately, solidly. With flags 
unfurled, guns aligned, obeying every word of com- 
mand, the line moved steadily onward. Leaving 
Wilcox behind, Pickett made a half-wheel to the left, 
the movement being finely performed, but it presented 
its right flank to the Union line and McGilvery con- 
centrated the fire of all his guns upon it. The 
accuracy of McGilvery 's fire tore great gaps in the 
ranks, but they were promptly closed up, and on the 
assailing column came across the fields, scaling strong 
fences, until it reached the base of the ridge Pickett 
was directed to assault. Here he changed direction by 
a half-wheel to the right, and halted his column under 
the heavy fire which confronted him, to rectify his line. 
Wilcox in the mean time moved forward to the right 
of Pickett, but the wheehng of Pickett's line separated 
them, and left a wide gap between, while Pettigrew, 
who with Heth's division was to support the move- 
ment on the left, was not able to get into line as soon as 
desired, by having a longer distance to traverse. 
When Pickett again advanced he was met by a terrific 
fire of musketry and canister from the men in his front, 
and McGilvery ploughed his line with shot and shell. 
The Twelfth New Jersey Regiment from its com- 
manding position on the right of the Second Corps, had 


withstood the shock of the dreadful cannonade with 
heroic fortitude, and watched the splendid advance of 
the assaulting column with eagerness and expectancy. 
Major Hill, who was in command, encouraged the 
men by his own coolness and intrepidity, and cautioned 
them to reserve their fire until each shot could be 
made to tell. The men obeyed, and emptying their 
cartridge boxes and placing their ammunition on the 
ledges of stone in front of them where they could the 
more easily use it, they confidently awaited the ap- 
proach of the attacking forces. The regiment was 
armed with the smooth bore musket, and they used the 
buck and ball cartridge, calibre sixty-nine, enabling 
them to give a deadlv fire at short range. 

The unfortunate misunderstandings which had sep- 
arated Pickett from his supports on the right and left 
placed him in a perilous position. The ridge he now 
essayed to reach was held b}^ a line of men as 
determined as himself and his brave Virginians. The 
advocates of State Rights and Human Slavery, and the 
defenders of National Unity and Freedom, were neither 
disposed to fiinch now that the contest had narrowed 
to the space of a hundred yards. As Pickett moved 
up the slope the men in blue shouted " Fredericks- 
burg." Ominous word. The slaughter at the heights 
of^St. Marye had not been forgotten, and the fate that 
there befell Burnside's brave men in blue how awaited 
the brave men in gray. Pickett's right flank exposed 
itself as he advanced, to Stannard's Vermonters con- 
cealed in the copse of trees, and Hancock at once 

Marker i2Th Regt. N. J. Vols. 
(At Bliss Barn.) 


ordered them to move upon it. Stannard's men 
poured a destructive fire into Armistead's ranks, and 
disorganized, the brigade surged to the rear of Pickett, 
which for a moment moved in the direction of Hays' 
division. Armistead pushed his way through the mass 
to the front, and then with a plunge Armistead, Kem- 
per and Garnett's men, all in one confused crowd fell 
upon the brigades of Hall and Harrow, and finally con- 
centrated upon Webb, where the mass swayed from side 
to side like a huge Avave seeking an outlet through an 
opening too small for it. The fighting was now at close 
quarters. Webb, heroic soldier that he was, gallantly 
sought to stem the tide, but in vain. The enemy 
pierced the centre, the artillery opened with canister 
at point blank range, Hancock and Gibbon pushed 
forward all their reserves, and Webb, Hall and 
HarroAv, had a desperate encounter with the enemy. 
Gushing, of Battery A, Fourth United States Artillery, 
advanced Avith his guns into the very midst of the 
enemy, and Armistead rushing boldly up urged his 
men to capture the battery. Inspired by the force of 
his brave example a crowd broke through the lines of 
Federals, and the gallant Gushing fired his last round 
into their faces and himself expired from a mortal 
wound previously received. Armistead had time only 
to place his hands upon the guns when he fell dead by 
Gushing's side. The loss of life had been dreadful on 
the Gonfederate side. Armistead and Garnett had 
been killed, Kemper badly wounded, and of the whole 
number of field officers of the splendid division which 



advanced so proudl}^ and in such magnificent array 
across the intervening fields, Pickett and a lieutenant- 
colonel alone remained. Pickett was a most conspicu- 
ous figure, and was in the fiercest of the fight. His 
escape from death seems miraculous. 

Pettigrew's command which moved out to take 
position on Pickett's left, comprised the brigades of 
Archer, Marshall, Davis and Brokenborough ; these 
were followed by the brigades of Scales and Lane 
under Trimble, who took position in rear of the right. 
As Pickett made his left half-wheel, by which he 
separated himself from Wilcox, his left was brought 
nearer to Trimble, who hastened forward to close 
up the interval while the left of the line slackened 
its pace, thus changing the position of the attacking 
force from a single line of battle, supported by the 
two brigades of Scales and Lane, to a movement e7i 
ecJiclon, in the order of x\rcher, Marshall, Davis and 
Brokenborough, with Scales and Lane in rear of 
Archer and in line with Marshall, the right of Scales 
extending beyond Archer's right. This part of the 
attacking force bore directly toward Smyth's brigade 
of Hays' division of the Second Corps, posted behind 
the stone wall previously described. Colonel William 
E. Potter, of the Twelfth Regiment New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, in his masterly address at the dedication of 
the monument of that regiment on the 26th of May, 
1886, thus describes the advance and repulse of Petti- 
grew's division : 

'' The brigade of Smyth, now about to receive this 


tremendous attack, Avas still posted as I have hereto- 
fore stated. Our own regiment (the Twelfth New- 
Jersey) was its proper right. The strength of the 
latter, as shown at the muster of June 30th, three 
days before, was twenty-five officers and five hundred 
and seven enlisted men present for duty, or a total of 
five hundred and thirty-two. Despite the casualties 
thus far it probably then had in line four hundred 
men. It was armed with the Springfield smooth-bore 
musket, calibre 69 — a terrible weapon at close range. 
The usual cartridge carried a large ball and three 
buckshot, but many of the men, while awaiting the 
enemy's advance, had opened their boxes and pre- 
pared special cartridges of from ten to twenty-five 
buckshot alone. It was the only regiment in the 
division bearing the arm mentioned, and I doubt 
whether anywhere upon that field a more destructive 
fire was encountered than at the proper time blazed 
forth from its front. 

" The men were young, well disciplined, of respecta- 
ble parentage, in comfortable circumstances and 
almost solely of native birth. In the entire regi- 
ment, as originally mustered, there were but seventy- 
two men of foreign nativity, and these were almost 
without exception faithful soldiers. The men had 
the confidence of their officers, who were in turn 
very generally trusted and respected by their men. 
Of very much the same stock were the One Hundred 
and Eighth New York, Fourteenth Connecticut and 
First Delaware, as they then stood. 

BvT. Lieutenant-Colonel Willl4m E. Potter, 
Second Lieut. Company K, 12th Regt., N. J. Vols., Inf. 

{From a Recent Photograph.) 



" The skirmishers along our front fell back before 
the enemy's advance, and taking position in the 
Emmetsburg road, fire with destructive effect ; they 
are, however, soon driven in. 

'' The enemy's column first comes in contact with 
the Eighth Ohio Volunteers, under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Franklin Sawyer, w^ho, with four com- 
panies, deployed as skirmishers, supported them with 
the remainder of the regiment as a reserve, to the 
front of and somewhat to the right of \Yoodruf['s 
battery. Under the stringent orders of Colonel Car- 
roll to hold their position to the last man, they had 
maintained their post without relief since 4 p. m., of 
the second of July ; having lost from their small 
numbers, up to noon of the third, 4 men killed, and i 
Captain, i Lieutenant, the Sergeant-Major and 38 men 

*' As the enemy's column came on, according to 
Colonel Sawyer's report, noAv ployed in mass with a 
regiment in line upon its flank, that officer exhibits 
brilliant soldiership. Instead of retiring his skirmish- 
ers, he advances his reserve to their support, and 
dispersing the enemy's regiment advancing in line, he 
changes front forward upon his tenth company, closes 
down upon the column itself, and opens a fierce fire 
directly upon its flank. Though smitten deep, the 
force of Sawyer was too light to stay the progress of 
the heavy column, which swept onward with majestic 
impetus to attack Smyth's brigade. The Eighth 
Ohio, however, captured a large number of prisoners 


and three stands of colors, and its total loss during the 
action was loi killed and wounded; including i 
officer killed, and 9 officers, the sergeant-major, 2 
orderly sergeants and 2 duty sergeants wounded. 

" In our main line, to use the language of the official 
report of General Hancock, the ' men evinced a 
striking disposition to Avithhold their fire.' In our 
own regiment they did so under the orders of Major 
Hill, enforced by their company officers. The enemy 
now reached the Emmetsburg road, the fences fall 
before their pressure, and as they emerge into the 
broad turnpike, Smyth's brigade rising to its feet 
pours a terrific sheet of musketry into the column, 
before which the whole front line seems to go down. 
The masses in rear press on, but vainly strive to pass 
the line of death marked by the road. The blazing 
line of Smyth's brigade is in their front ; the Eighth 
Ohio presses upon their left ; the guns of Woodrufif 
firing double charges of canister upon " their flank, 
sweep down whole ranks at once. To advance is 
annihilation, to retreat is death. In vain do they make 
the most strenuous exertions to regain their lost 
momentum ; in vain do their leaders, officers, color- 
bearers, strong men, spring to the front and endeavor 
to move the column forward or cause it to deploy to 
fire. These are instantly shot down ; and in less time 
than I have taken to tell the story the whole of the six 
brigades to the left of Pickett are either prone upon the 
ground, or fleeing in disordered groups northward and 



westward to escape the fire and to regain Seminary 

'' Just at the critical moment General Hays brought 
forward from the rear the Third Brigade and formed 
it in rear of the Twelfth New Jersey. These troops 
did not, however, open fire, though they suffered con- 
siderable loss, and one shell, it is said, exploding near 
the colors of the One Hundred and Eleventh New 
York, killed 7 men. 

" In the height of the fight Lieutenant Richard H. 
Townsend, of Cape May county, fell shot through the 
heart. Promoted from the Tenth Regiment New 
Jersey Volunteers, he had been able to join his new 
command only three days before, and thus died in his 
first battle. 

'' At least 2,000 prisoners and fifteen colors were 
taken by Hays' division. Of the latter Smyth's bri- 
gade took nine ; the Fourteenth Connecticut capturing 
four, the First Delaware three, and the Twelfth New 
Jersey two. The aggregate loss of the brigade in the 
action was 366. The loss of the Twelfth New Jersey 
was: killed, 2 officers and 21 men ; wounded, 4 officers 
and 79 men; missing, 9 men; an aggregate of 115, 
about one-fourth of its total strength. The total loss 
of the division in killed, wounded and missing 
was 1,291. 

'' If I have made myself clear, it will thus be 
perceived that Smyth's brigade, with Woodruff's 
battery, not only checked the enemy's advance, but 
practically destroyed his column. No portion of the 



enemy's troops reached our line. One smooth-cheeked 
lad, indeed, the leader of thousands, ran forward 
through all that fire to fall dead and covered with 
wounds within twenty feet of our colors. Another 
reached the Byran barn, and from behind it, firing- one 
shot down our line, was killed by Color-Sergeant 
Charles E. Cheeseman, a brave soldier, who, shot 
through the body himself, died by my side at the field 
hospital of the Wilderness, in May of 1864. These two 
men, like spray driven from a wave, marked the 
farthest limit of the enemy's advance in our front." 

The disastrous fire from Hays' front threw the 
attacking forces into the utmost confusion and dis- 
order, and the troops of Scales and Archer who w^ith- 
stood the shock united with Pickett, but it was too 
late, the force of the attacking column was spent, its 
power broken, and those who could get back to 
Seminary Ridge went there. Pickett's division was 
practically annihilated. Out of the four thousand five 
hundred men who advanced with him, not more than 
one thousand returned. 

Wilcox, on the right of Pickett who had become 
separated from him on the advance, reached a position 
in front of Birney's division of the Third Corps. With- 
out any knowledge of the disaster which had befallen 
Pickett on the left, he deployed his men ; but Stannard 
who had returned to his place in the wood observed 
Wilcox's position, and repeating the movement by 
which he threw Armistead's line into confusion he 
advanced two of his regiments on Wilcox's flank and 







' l- -A ^ >^')lg Q 

y -fe^. 



iff ^^ 



P A T R J c k 

* ff^^<t 

The General Lixe of Battle at the time of Pickett's Charge 

;02 ^'^" ^^^ J ERSE Y TROOPS 

poured an enfilading fire down his line. The sudden- 
ness of this attack caused Wilcox to halt, and finding 
himself assailed by Stannard on the left and by artillery 
in front, he hastily departed with a loss of 200 of his 

When the eneni}^ was forming for their charge 
Battery ''A," First New Jersey Artillery, Lieutenant 
Augustin N. Parsons commanding, was ordered by 
General Tyler, commanding the Artillery Reserve, to 
advance to the support of the Second Corps, in accord- 
ance with the instructions of General Hunt, chief of 
artillery. Promptly at the word Parsons, and his 
brave Germans who had distinguished themselves in 
many fields of action with their beloved commander 
Hexamer, moved into position along the Taneytown 
road and by order of Captain R. H. Fitzhugh was 
posted near the stone fence in front of General Webb's 
position, on the left of Fitzhugh's battery (K, First 
New York Artillery). ''At this time," reported Fitz- 
hugh, "the enemy were making a strong effort to 
break the Second Corps line, their infantry having 
charged up to the stone fence near a small wooded 
knoll about seventy-five yards on my right, while their 
artillery fire swept the ground occupied by the two 
batteries. Just then there were no other batteries at 
that point and there seemed to be a good deal of con- 
fusion. The rebel artillery fire, from near a house and 
barn, about one thousand yards on my left and front, 
was especially severe, but soon materially slackened 
and became very wild under a fire of percussion and 



time-shell from Battery 'K.' In the mean time Lieuten- 
ant Parsons poured forty rounds of shrapnel into the 
flank of the rebel infantry charging the Second Corps, 
and in about half or three-quarters of an hour the 
enemy abandoned the attack on that point altogether. 

'' After a pause of about an hour the rebel infantry 
began forming on the right of the house and barn 
before spoken of while from the same quarter their 
artillery opened upon us a brisk but poorly directed 
and inefficient fire, to which, by direction of General 
Hunt, I made no reply, but awaited the attack of 
their infantry (Wilcox and Perr3''s brigades), who 
soon charged over the open field toward some broken 
ground, about five hundred yards on my left, as they 
did so giving the two batteries an opportunity to pour 
in an enfilading fire, which they did with great effect, 
for the enemy did not reach the point but broke and 
gave way in all directions when about the middle of 
the field. 

'' Of the conduct of officers and men, both of Battery 
' A ' First New Jersey Artillery, Lieutenant A. N. 
Parsons commanding, and of ^K' First New York 
Artillery, with Eleventh New York Battery attached, 
I cannot speak too highly. Coming into position at a 
critical point of the rebel charge on our centre and 
under a galling fire, the guns were worked with great 
deliberation and a most decided effect." 

Battery " A " sustained a loss of 2 killed and 7 
wounded ; 5 horses were killed and 200 rounds of 


ammunition expended, of which 120 rounds were 
shrapnel and 80 shell. 

The conduct of the Twelfth New Jersey Infantry was 
also of the most exemplary character, and the reports 
of all the superior officers, mention specifically their 
brilliant achievements and the coolness and bravery 
exhibited under the most trying ordeal human nature 
had ever been subjected to. Colonel Thomas A. Smyth, 
commanding the brigade says : " The officers and 
men behaved with the greatest coolness, and endured 
this terrible fire w4th much fortitude. As the fire of 
the enemy's batteries slackened their infantry moved 
upon our position in three lines preceded by skirmish- 
ers. ^ -^ * ^ Major John T. Hill, commanding 
Twelfth New Jersey Volunteers, directed his men to 
retain their fire during the charge of the enemy until 
they were within twenty yards, when, at his command, 
so tremendous a fire of buck and ball was poured into 
their ranks as to render it impossible that one of them 
could reach the breastworks." 

The report of Lieutenant William E. Potter of the 
Twelfth, whose duties as ordnance officer received 
the warm commendation of General Hays, shows that 
two thousand five hundred stand of arms were col- 
lected, and that fully one thousand more w^ere left 
upon the field for want of time to gather them. The 
number of prisoners General Hays estimates at 2,000. 

The casualties of the Twelfth Regiment during the 
two days were heavy. The loss sustained in charg- 



ing the Bliss barn was severe, the total for the two 
days being- 115, as follows: 


Killed — Private George H. Martin. 

Wounded— VrwdX^^ John S. Adams, James S. Butler, 
Joseph S. Fletcher, Benjamin F. Guant, Isaac D. Jones, 
Ira Knowlton, Joseph Morgan, Jr., David W. Scott, 
Daniel Smalley, Adam Stormes, Thomas Whitzell. 


Killed — Corporal Joseph B. Spachius ; Privates John 
Bishop, Edward W. Coward, Samuel Piatt, William 
H. Spencer. 

Wounded — First Sergeant Henry P. Reed ; Privates 
William L. Carty, Joseph H. Danley, Michael C. 
Donegan, Samuel McCuUoch, George H. Rhubart, 
Edward Thomas, Charles D. F. Wilkie. 

Missing — Privates Clark S. Champion (returned and 
discharged), John Elliott (died at Annapolis, Maryland, 
December 9, 1863), William G. Leak (returned and 


Killed — Second Lieutenant Richard H. Townsend. 
Wounded^VY\N2i\.^s Thomas Huttom, Charles Lex, 
George H. Wood, William S. Woodward. 


Wounded — Captain James McComb ; Privates 
George W. Crumback, Enos Garrison, Robert Gant 


(died at Field Hospital, July 3, 1863), Samuel Green, 
Samuel L. Latcham. 


Killed — Captain Charles K. Horsfall ; Privates 
Georg-e Anderson, Isaac H. Copeland, James A. Riley. 

Wounded — Second Lieutenant Stephen G. Eastwick ; 
Corporal Thomas E. Prickett ; Privates Jacob Asay, 
Matthew Cavanagh, Francis Haggerty, Joseph Meyers, 
Seth C. Southard, Charles SuUivan, William Tozer. 


Killed — Corporal William H. H. Stratton ; Privates 
George W. Adams, John Albright, William H. 

Wounded — First Lieutenant John J. Trimble ; Cor- 
poral Abel K. Shute (died at Hospital, Baltimore, 
Maryland, July 31, 1863); Privates Alfred Eastburn, 
Joseph T. Garwood, John Grice, Joseph Jones, Wil- 
liam H. Park, James K. Russell. 


Killed — Privates John Conley, Thomas R. Middle- 
ton, Thomas J. Rudrow. 

Wounded — Sergeant Hiram Smith ; Corporal Charles 
Mayhew ; Privates Edward L. Brick, Isaiah Groff, 
Thomas M. Flarrison, William Herring (died at home. 
May 20, 1864), Charles D. Husbands, Adam Jordan, 
John H. Lamar, Aaron Parker, Nathan Parker, 
Richard F. Plum. 

Missing — Privates Edward H. Pancoast (returned 



and discharged April 5, 1865), John L. Severns 
(returned and transferred to V. R. C, March 31, 1864). 


Killed^? x'wdX^s Wilham S. Harker, Daniel Kiernan. 

Wounded — Sergeants Alfred H. Brick, Clarkson Jen- 
nings ; Corporals George A. Cobb, Edmund C. Tier ; 
Privates David H. Atkinson, David Ballinger, Richard 
Barnes, Isaac A. Dubois, James Lippincott, James 
Magee, John Neusteal, Samuel L. Seran, James 
Stretch, Charles String. 

Missing — Private William L. Se^n (returned and 
commissioned in One Hundred and Twenty-first 
United States Colored Troops). 

Wounded — Captain Henry F. Chew ; Privates Jacob 
Adams, Richard V. Fithian, John J. Hoffman, James 
Horner, John Miller (3rd), John W. Niblick. 


Killed — Privates Simon W. Creamer, Henry S. 

Wounded— Frivsites Daniel H. Carman (died at Field 
Hospital July 3, 1863), William H. Dickeson, Charles 
H. Simpkins, Bloomfield Spencer, Samuel Tomlinson. 

Missing — Sergeant Aaron Terry (died at Anderson- 
ville, Georgia, March 24, 1864); Privates Thomas C. 
Galloway (died at Andersonville, Georgia, August 28, 
1864), Theophilus Sutton (died at Andersonville, 
Georgia, October 28, 1864). 



Killed. Wounded. Missing. Total. 

Officers -- 24 — 6 

Enlisted Men 20 80 9 109 

Total... 22 84 9 115 

The following figures show the strength of the 
Twelfth New Jersey Infantry Volunteers on the dates 

June 30^ iSbj : Officers. Men. Total. 

For duty.. 25 507 532 

Total present 27 569 596 

July 13, 1863: 

For duty 18 383 401 

Total present... 22 441 463 

None of the other New Jersey regiments were 
engaged in this defense of Cemetery Ridge. The 
Eleventh with Carr's brigade had been ordered up to 
the support of the line, but their services were not 
called in requisition. The First New Jersey Brigade 
was in reserve occupying a commanding position 
watching the contest. They were under the orders of 
General Newton* of the First Corps to whom they 

* General John Newton, commanding First Army Corps, to whom 
the First New Jersey Brigade was sent, reports as to the formation of 
the line : 

"The dawn of day (July 3) found the position of the First Corps as 
follows : First Division on Culp's Hill; Second Division on Cemetery 
Hill to support the Eleventh or Second Army Corps ; the Third 
Division on the left centre adjoining Hancock. Between the left of the 
Third Division and Sykes on the left — an interval of half a mile — there 



had been sent as a reinforcement and ready for any 

The exhausted regiments of the Second New Jersey 
Brigade were in reserve in rear of Caldwell's division, 
and Clark's battery ('' B " First New Jersey Artillery) 
did not become engaged. The Thirteenth Regiment 
lay in line of battle in McAllister's woods, and at five 
o'clock with the One Hundred and Seventh New York 
and two other regiments, all under command of 
•Colonel Carman of the Thirteenth proceeded at a 
rapid pace to Rummel's farm to support Gregg's 
cavalry in the fierce conflict there going on. With the 
brilUant services of the First New Jersey Cavalry in 
the contest with Stuart's proud horsemen. New Jer- 
sey's record in the glories achieved on that historic 
field will be completed. 

On the second of July Pleasonton so distributed his 
cavalry that Sickles was left dependent wholly upon 
his own skirmish line for a knowledge of what was 
going on upon his flank. Fortunately on the third 
Kilpatrick took up position on the Union left with the 
brigades of Farnsworth and Merritt, and moved 

were no troops in position. I reported this fact to General Meade, 
who authorized me to go to General Sedgwick and obtain troops from 
him. While proceeding on this mission I encountered Caldwell's 
division of the Second Corps, which I put in position on the left of the 
Third Division, First Corps. General Sedgwick could only spare me 
the First New Jersey Brigade, General Torbert, which was placed in 
position on the left of Caldwell." General Newton also highly 
compliments Lieutenant H. W. Jackson of the Fourth New Jersey, who 
was acting aide-de-camp on his staff. 



toward the Emmetsburg road, on which the Con- 
federate trains Avere moving. This demonstration 
commanded the attention of Law, who succeeded 
Hood in command of his division, and he despatched 
Robertson's brigade to intercept the movement. 
Farnsworth charged the rebel infantry with great bold- 

» a s 
s ^ 

^ Q 

In N 






Juuy 3. /S(f3. 

ness, but the nature of the country with its numerous 
fences furnished so many obstacles that he was driven 
to bay, and suffered heavy loss. Farnsworth was 
killed. Merritt on the Emmetsburg road encountered 
Anderson's brigade, and he was also repulsed. The 
cavalry was then re-united and posted to closely watch 
the further movements of the enemy. This by-play 

Monument i2th Regt. N. J. Vols., Inf. 


was productive of one good result. It called from 
Lee's army two brigades of infantry that otherwise 
could have been of service in strengthening Pickett 
when the attack upon the Union centre was ordered. 

Stuart after receiving his instructions from Lee on 
the afternoon of July i, ordered the concentration of 
all his cavalry on the right of the Union army. Lee's 
confidence in a victorious assault upon Meade's line is 
clearly shown in the orders he gave to Stuart which 
were to get around the Federal right, and take posi- 
tion so as to strike their column in flank, in the event 
of their retiring by way of Westminster. Stuart's 
movement was discovered by General Howard who 
reported to Meade that the enemy's cavalry in strong 
force was moving to the right of the Federal line, and 
General Gregg started with his cavalry to meet him. 
The disposition by Stuart of his troopers was such 
that Gregg saw his intentions, and posting the First 
New Jersey Cavalry as mounted skirmishers to the 
right and front in a wood, near the Bonaughtown 
road, the Third Pennsylvania was deployed as dis- 
mounted skirmishers to the left and front in the open 
fields, and the First Maryland on the Hanover turnpike 
to protect the right of his line. Stuart's force was 
much larger than Gregg's, and he advanced in strong 
force upon the latter. The firing of the skirmishers 
grew in volume like that of a line of battle, and both 
sides brought their artillery into play. Finally the 
rebel horsemen mounted for the charge appeared, 
and they galloped briskly forward, being met by the 



Seventh Michigan who were driven back. The First 
Michigan in turn charged the victorious enemy and 
drove them back to their original position. Charges 
and counter-charges were made the enemy in every 
instance being foiled, and as they withdrew from the 
field to their left, the First New Jersey, posted in the 
wood, gallantly- and successfully charged the flank of 
the column, driving them from the field. Chaplain 
Pyne relates the following incident which occurred 
during the fight : 

" Sent forward as a forlorn hope, to give time for 
the rest of the division to come up with unblown 
horses, this little band of one hundred and fifty men, 
by their undaunted bearing and steady fire, staggered 
the troops that by a single charge could have ridden 
over them. Refusing to dismount in spite of the 
storm of bullets constantly whistling over our men, 
Janeway rode from end to end of his line of skirmish- 
ers, encouraging, warning and directing its every 
portion — showing here as on many another field a 
coolness and bravery that made him a marked man 
among men. Advancing from point to point, heralding 
each charge by a cheer which shook the enemy worse 
than the bullets of their carbines, for more than a hun- 
dred yards the First Jersey pushed their little line ; 
and at last, with ammunition exhausted, they still 
held their ground facing the rebels with their 
revolvers. Then Janeway rode back to the reserve 
and reported to Major Beaumont the condition of his 
men, requesting ammunition and reinforcements. At 


Major Beaumont's request, Colonel Mcintosh ordered 
another regiment to take the place of the First Jersey. 
That regiment halted a hundred yards to the rear of 
the line where the Jerseymen were stationed, and 
would not advance any further, while the latter 
resisted every effort to move them back. Presently 
Colonel Mcintosh rode up to Major Beaumont saying, 
'Major, where is your regiment?' 'On the skirmish 
line, sir ! ' ' But I ordered them to be relieved.' ' The 
other regiment cannot be got to relieve them ! ' 'I 
will see about that,' said the Colonel; 'recall your 
men!' I have recalled them,' replied the Major, 'and* 
they won't come.' Even Colonel Mcintosh failed to 
get the relieving regiment up through the tremendous 
fire to the position of the First Jersey ; old soldiers as 
they Avere they could not calmly face it. At length, 
however, the Third Pennsylvania came upon the line, 
and the First Jersey was at liberty to retire from the 
action. But no ! they sought every method to avoid 
falling back. Borrowing ammunition from the Penn- 
sylvanians, they kept their boldly won position, and 
cheering like mad, defied the efforts of the enemy — 
only a handful retiring, casting reluctant looks behind 
as they went." 

The charge by the New Jersey Cavalry — which the 
historian of the regiment strangely omits all mention 
of — was one of the most brilliant and effective exploits 
during the day. General Gregg, commanding the 
division, and General Pleasanton, of the Cavalry 
Corps, both speak of it in their reports. There is no 



official report from the officers of the regiment of its 
services at Gettysburg, and none by the commander 
of the brigade previous to July 4. The regiment sus- 
tained a loss of 7 men wounded during the battle. 

About eleven o'clock at night the brigade of infantry 
from the Twelfth Corps under command of Colonel 
Carman, appeared on the Hanover road, but their aid 
was not required. The battle was over. Lee had 
been defeated at every point, and sorrowfully he pre- 
pared for the southward march, his men never more to 
appear on Northern soil, except as men of peace, and 
all American citizens under one flag and one govern- 

The total casualties in New Jersey Regiments during 
the two days they were engaged are given in the fol- 
lowing table : 























First New Jersey Cav^alry 






















First New Jersey Artillery Bat. B 








Sixth New Jersey Infantry 


Seventh New Jersey Infantry 

Eighth New Jersey Infantry 


"3 331 
49' 198 

153' 275 
"5 532 
21 360 


Eleventh New Jersey Infantry 

Twelfth New Jersey Infantry 

Thirteenth New Jersey Infantry 











622 26';6 


The First New Jersey Brigade though not at any 
time engaged in the battle sustained a few losses from 
stray bullets and shells, and its detailed skirmishers 


also suffered somewhat. On the march back to 
Virginia there were several skirmishes with the 
enemy, the total casualties in the several regiments 
being reported on July i8th as follows : 


Wounded — July 3d, 1863, at Gettysburg — Sergeant 
William Duffy, Company C ; Charles Lenz, Gottfried 
Schraitman, William Krauss, Frederick Imhaff, Com- 
pany D ; Wallingsen Van Houten, Company I. On 
skirmish line near Hagerstown, July 11, 1863 — Second 
Lieutenant Johan J. G. Schmaltz, Corporal Ernest 
Fischer. Total 8 wounded. 


Killed — Corporal Daniel Schuh, Company H, July 5, 
1863, near Fairfield, Pa. 

Wounded — Captain John Frantz, Company B, July 
12, 1863, near Funkstown, Md.; John C. Martin, Com- 
pany E, and Corporal Matthew H. Ivory, Company H, 
both on July 3, near Gettysburg. 

Total — I killed, 3 wounded. 


Wounded — At Gettysburg, July 3 — Isaac Cathrell, 
Company A (died July 13th); Jacob B. Hendershot, 
Company B ; John C. Conklin, Company K ; near 
Funkstown, July 12 — Jacob O. Burdett and John 
Ackerson, Company D. Total, 5 wounded. 

Total losses for the First New Jersey Brigade — 
killed, I ; wounded, 16. 



THE battle of Gettysburg- was a complete and 
decisive victory for the Federal army. The 
news of Lee's defeat was flashed across the con- 
tinent the next morning — July 4th — and a few hours 
later a dispatch from General Grant announcing the 
capitulation of Vicksburg, filled the whole North with 
rejoicing. Bells were rung, salutes fired, enthusiastic 
greetings exchanged, public meetings held, and it is 
safe to say that never before was there such a cele- 
bration of the Nation's birthday as that of July 4th, 

The scenes on the field of battle defy description. 
Beginning on the right of the Union line, the dead 
bodies of the enemy which lined Gulp's Hill from its 
summit to the banks of Rock Creek presented a 
harrowing sight. They were so close together that it 
was impossible to walk over the ground without care- 
fully selecting a spot for each step, and the broken 


muskets, straps, belts, clothing and implements of war- 
fare which go to make up the debris of a battle-field, 
presented a demoralizing spectacle. Behind the rocks 
and trees along the creek, and in the stone house from 
which the enemy's sharpshooters did such effective 
work in the ranks of the Thirteenth New Jersey and 
Twenty-seventh Indiana regiments, the dead bodies 
of several rebels were found, showing that the fire 
from these regiments had done severe execution. 
The rebel battery on Benner's Hill had met with 
disaster. The dead bodies of the horses which were 
killed by the fire of the batteries on Cemetery Hill, 
lay where they fell, while the newly-made graves to 
the rear marked the last resting places of the brave 
men who manned the guns. Two disabled caissons 
remained, further evidences of the destructive and 
accurate fire of the Union batteries. In front of the 
ridge which connects Gulp with Cemetery Hill, 
where the Louisiana Tigers made their heroic but fatal 
charge similar scenes were witnessed, but across the 
open country in front of the line of the Second and 
Third Corps, the sights beggared description. Dead 
and bloated horses, the disfigured bodies of hundreds of 
brave soldiers, abandoned material of every kind con- 
ceivable met the eye in all directions. Along Sickles» 
angle, in the Peach Orchard and beyond, over the 
wheat-field and among the rocks of the Devil's Den, 
blue bodies and gray were intermingled. Under the 
porches — and even under the houses themselves — 
wounded men had crawled to escape the dreadful hail 


of leaden missiles, only to die of neglect. It was such 
a sight as only the destroying angel could reproduce, 
and it told of the horrors of war, as only a battle-field 
can tell it. But these mortifying bodies could not be 
permitted to remain. Details of men, with shovels and 
picks were seen moving over the field. Wide trenches 
were at first dug and the dead placed side by side and 
covered up, a board with the number of bodies 
buried, being placed at the head of the mound. In 
the case of Union men who were buried by details 
from their own regiments, the board would be marked 
with the name and company of the dead soldier, but it 
happened in many cases that the dead of one regiment 
were buried by details from other regiments, and thus 
came about the long list of *' Unknown " dead, whose 
bodies were afterward transferred to the National 
Cemetery. The number of bodies to be buried was so 
large that trenches could not be dug for all, and as a 
matter of sanitary policy, it became necessary to 
simply cover them where they lay with earth, and in 
that manner hundreds were disposed of. 

The care of the wounded was however the most 
important duty. The Medical Director of the army 
had made ample and complete arrangements for the 
establishment of field hospitals, but the trains with the 
necessary supplies were not permitted to come nearer 
the battle-field than Taneytown, and on July 2d all 
trains were ordered by General Meade still farther to 
the rear — to Westminster — twenty-five miles from the 


battle-field. ^ The effect of this order was to deprive 
the Medical Department of the means for taking 
proper care of the wounded until the result of the 
engagement of the second and third days of July was 
fully known. In most of the corps the wagons exclus- 
ively used for medicines moved with the ambulances, 
so that the medical officers had a sufficient supply of 
dressings, chloroform, and STich articles until the 
wagons could come up, but the tents and other appli- 
ances were not available until July 5th, and though 
this was a disobedience of orders, yet it produced 
such excellent results that the Medical Director of 
the army quotes approvingly from the report of 
Medical Director McNulty of the Twelfth Corps, 
who says: ''It is with extreme satisfaction that I 
can assure you that it enabled me to remove the 
wounded from the field, shelter, feed them, and dress 
their wounds within six hours after the battle ended, 
and to have every capital operation performed within 
twenty-four hours after the injury was received." 
Medical Director Letterman says of this: "I can, I 
think, safely say that such would have been the result 
in other corps had the same facilities been allowed — a 
result not to have been surpassed, if equaled, in any 
battle of magnitude that has ever taken place." 

The following interesting account of the hospital 
work of the Twelfth Corps, is from one of the promi- 
nent surgeons of the First Division : 

* Report of Jonathan A. Letterman, Medical Director. 


" The Twelfth Corps Field Hospital was first located 
in the rear of Power's Hill, but after being shelled 
out on the afternoon of July second was permanently 
located (by Surgeon J. McNulty, medical director 
of the corps, and Surgeon A. Chapel, chief medical 
officer of the First Division), on a farm owned, I think, 
by G. Bushman, situated or lying on Rock Creek, near 
a cross road running from the Baltimore pike to the 
Taneytown road, some two or two and one-half miles 
from the town of Gettysburg. The farm house was 
used as a dining place for the surgeons and attendants, 
and the female portion of the farmer's family were 
kept busy in the preparation and serving of food. The 
large barn was utilized for shelter for as many of the 
wounded as it would hold, and hospital tents were 
put up in rows on each side of an imaginary street 
running up in the field north from the barn. The 
tents on the west side of the street were alloted to the 
Second Division, and those on the east side to the 
First Division. Surgeon H. E. Goodman, Twenty- 
eighth Pennsylvania, was placed in charge of the 
Second Division, and Surgeon J. J. H. Love, Thir- 
teenth New Jersey Volunteers, had the care of the 
First Division. In the First Division the chief opera- 
tors were Surgeons W. C. Rodgers, Forty-sixth Penn- 
sylvania ; W. C. Burnett, Fifth Connecticut, and W. 
H. Twiford, Twenty-seventh Indiana. While in the 
Second Division Surgeons J. A. Ball, Fifth Ohio ; A. 
K. Fifield, Seventh Ohio, and E. L. Dunn, One Hun- 
dred and Ninth Pennsylvania, were assigned to similar 

John J. H. Love, 

Surgeon-in-Chief 3d Brigade, ist Division, 12th Corps. 

Surgeon 13th Regiment, N. J. Vols., Inf. 

{From a iVar-Time Photograph.) 


duty. To keep the records, provide shelter and food 
was assigned to Surgeons R. T. Paine, Twenty-eighth 
New York; J. A. Freeman, Thirteenth New Jersey; 
Geo. W. Burke, Forty-sixth Pennsylvania ; E. L. Bes- 
sell. Fifth Connecticut; W. T. Tibbals, Fifth Ohio, 
and C. H. Lord, One Hundred and Seventh New York. 

'' During the evening of July second the wounded 
began to arrive, and all that night and the next day 
until afternoon late the ambulances were constantly 
bringing in loads of wounded men. First Lieuten- 
ant George M. Hard, Thirteenth New Jersey Volun- 
teers, had charge of the ambulance train of the First 
Division. My records state that about six hun- 
dred (600) wounded were brought to the hospital. 
These were sheltered, their wounds dressed, all 
necessary operations performed, and everything fixed 
up in good condition by Sunday afternoon, July 
fourth. Then the army having left the vicinity. 
Surgeon H. E. Goodman Avith twelve assistant 
surgeons and the necessary number of hospital stew- 
ards and nurses were detailed to take charge of the 
hospital, and the balance of the surgeons mount- 
ing their horses took a hasty gallop over the battle- 
field and rejoined their respective commands late 
that night at Littlestown, Pennsylvania. Surgeon 
Freeman and Hospital Steward Albert Delano, of the 
Thirteenth New Jersey Volunteers, were among those 
left behind to assist in caring for the wounded. 

" The facility and despatch shown by the surgeons of 
the Twelfth Corps in caring for their wounded at this 


battle, was the result of a disobedience of or a neglect 
to obey an order issued by General Meade on July first,, 
reducing the medical transportation and sending all 
trains, except ammunition wagons and ambulances, to 
the rear, somewhere between Union Mills and West- 
minster. The medical department of the Twelfth 
Corps had its full allowance of supplies on hand ready 
for use, and was the only corps in the Army of the 
Potomac that had. 

" During the memorable cannonade on the afternoon 
of July third, the surgeons and attendants became so 
excited that all, for a time, left their work and crowded 
the top of a knoll in rear of the hospital, from which a 
view could be had toward our line of battle. The 
roar was terrific ; the ground under us trembled ; all 
knew that the great crisis in the history of the Army 
of the Potomac and that of Northern Virginia had 
come ; that one or the other must conquer or be 
defeated, and all understood what the consequences 
would be in either event. The bursting shell comes 
nearer. Look ! there falls one in the field across the 
road from us. The roar increases. The shell rain on 
that ploughed field, hurling its loose dirt in great 
masses skyward. The enemy must be driving our 
troops, or else secured a more favorable position for 
one of their batteries. See, there ! the Second Corps 
Hospital, between us and Little Round Top, is under 
fire, and they must move, and that quickly. Men^ 
wounded and otherwise, ambulances, hospital wagons^ 
mules, led horses, servants, surgeons, all come hurrying 



through the fields under that shell fire. How soon 
will our turn come ? The cannonade begins to slacken 
and die out, and in a little while come the rattle and 
steady roar of musketry. Which side holds its own ? 
No ambulances come in ; no messengers from the 
front ; no stragglers can be seen pouring over the hill, 
as on the previous afternoon when the Third Corps 
was fighting its great battle. The minutes seem hours. 
Presently an orderly is seen hurrying across the fields. 
We call him to us and eagerly ask what news from the 
front. ' The Union lines stand firm,' he shouts. Each 
man breathes a silent prayer of thanks to God, and 
then with three cheers for General Meade and the 
Army of the Potomac all return to their work." 

The number of wounded who were cared for by the 
medical director of the Army of the Potomac was 
14,193, and Confederates 6,802 — a total of 20,995. 
These figures include the Federal wounded of July u 
who fell into Union hands on the 4th. 

The wounded from other corps suffered dreadfully. 
During the morning of July 4th a heavy rain fell— an 
occurrence which seemed to succeed every great battle, 
and hundreds of disabled soldiers were without shelter, 
and unable to reach any. The water in Rock Creek 
rose to a considerable height and in immense volume 
rushed southward with great force, in several instances 
carrying down with it the wounded men along its 
banks who were unable to move to higher ground, and 
some were drowned. The effect of the rain upon the 


dead bodies of men and horses lying on the field was 
ghastly — but it would be painful to particularize. 

The town of Gettysburg had not suffered much in a 
material sense. The enemy occupied it, and this saved 
it from the terrible effects of a cannonade from that 
side. Its residents were Union people and no attempt 
therefore to shell the rebel lines there was made by 
Meade. But occasionally a cannon ball penetrated the 
town and in two instances houses were pierced, the 
balls remaining imbedded in the brick walls where 
they can now be seen. 

On the morning of July fourth about eight o'clock 
the Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment rejoined its 
corps and with them went on a reconnoissance over 
the enemy's position on the Union right. They found 
no signs of Ewell's troops, that officer having retired 
the night before, and passing through Gettysburg 
formed a new line with Lee's army, along the ridge of 
Seminary Hill. Meade did not attempt a counter- 
charge after the fight on the third. General Han- 
cock, when wounded, had suggested it, but Lee had 
been given too much time to prepare for defence. 
On the evening of the third of July Meade sent for- 
ward a body of troops to feel the enemy, who 
speedily Avithdrew, and at a council of his corps 
commanders that night it was decided not to at- 
attack Lee, nor to follow the same route, if he 
retired. It was not at all clear to Meade's mind 
that Lee was so badly punished that he was not able 
to outnumber him, and taking the benefit of the 



doubt, he waited to ascertain what Lee intended 
doing. That officer however was preparing for his 
march back to Virginia, and taking advantage of 
Meade's inaction had covered a long distance before 
the Army of the Potomac moved. Lee had the 
shorter and more direct route to the Potomac and his 
advance had reached the river several days ahead of 
his pursuers, but the heavy rains had so swollen the 
stream that he could not replace the bridges that had 
been swept away. It was the twelfth of July before 
Meade confronted him in line of battle and on the 
night of the thirteenth unmolested Lee crossed over 
into Virginia. A few of his rear guard were captured 
the next morning by LTnion cavalry, but Lee, with all 
his plunder, had escaped. The Army of the Potomac 
recrossed into Virginia and no engagement of any 
importance took place between the two armies. There 
was a good deal of lively skirmishing between the 
cavalry. On the fifth of July the First New Jersey 
had a sharp engagement in the mountain passes north 
of Emmetsburg, and again on the sixth. Lieutenant 
Thomas S. Cox receiving a bad wound. On the 
fourteenth the regiment had an encounter with the 
Twelfth Virginia and captured its colonel. Affairs of 
this kind occupied the attention of the cavalry daily, 
but aside from these nothing of moment occurred on 
the march. 

The Comte de Paris who has made an exhaustive 
research among the figures presented by both armies 
sums up the effective strength during the battle to be : 


For the Army of the Potomac from eighty-two to 
eighty-four thousand men ; army of Northern Virginia 
from sixty-eight to sixty-nine thousand men, actually 
upon the field of battle. The losses were enormous 
for the number of combatants engaged, amounting to 
twenty-seven per cent, for the Union army and thirty- 
six per cent, for the Confederates. 

The losses in officers in both armies were heavy* 
On the Union side were Major-General Reynolds, and 
Brigadier-Generals Vincent and Weed, killed ; Major- 
Generals Sickles, Hancock, Doubleday, Gibbon, Bar- 
low, Warren and Butterficld, and Brigadier-Generals 
Graham, Paul, Barnes, Brooke and Webb, wounded. 

The rebels lost in killed Generals Armistead, Barks- 
dale, Garnett, Pender, Semmes and Pettigrew (during 
the retreat) ; and Generals Anderson, Hampton, Hood, 
Jenkins, Jones, Kemper and Scales, wounded. The 
rebel General Archer was captured on July ist. 

The list of officers of lower rank would fill a page. 
The death of Hazlett and Gushing of the artillery 
service, and of Colonels Rorty, Sherrill, Zook, Cross 
and Willard, of the infantry each signify especially 
heroic services rendered most opportunely, and under 
circumstances of the most exalting nature. 

The success of the Union arms at Gettysburg did for 
the cause of humanity precisely what the Declaration 
of Independence did lor mankind in 1776. The latter 
was the protest of a misgoverned people against the 
encroachments of kingly rule upon their rights and 
privileges ; the battle of Gettysburg proclaimed the 


dawn of liberty to an enslaved race and exhibited 
to the world the sublime spectacle of a nation of 
freemen determined that every one within its borders 
should have that liberty which the Declaration 
of Independence proclaimed to be the inalienable 
right of all men. The war for the Union, first begun 
by the slaves States of the South, was waged on the 
part of the government for national preservation, but 
when President Lincoln issued his Proclamation of 
Emancipation, the contest took on a new phase, and 
slavery was doomed to eternal destruction by the 
success of the national arms. How eloquently Presi- 
dent Lincoln drew the picture in his dedicatory address 
at Gettysburg — a speech immortalized as a master- 
piece of English composition, in the breadth of thought 
as well as in the beauty of expression which character- 
izes it : 

'' Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought 
forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in 
liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men 
are created equal. Now, we are engaged in a great 
civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, 
so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We 
are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have 
come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final rest- 
ing-place for those who here gave their lives that the 
nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper 
that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we 
cannot dedicate — we cannot consecrate — we cannot 
hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, 


\yho struggled here, have consecrated it far above our 
poor power to add or detract. The world will little 
note nor long remember what we say here, but it 
never can forget what they did here. It is for us the 
living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished 
work which they who fought here have thus far so 
nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedi- 
cated to the great task remaining before us -that from 
these honored dead we take increased devotion to that 
cause for which they gave the last full measure of 
devotion. That we here highly resolve that these 
dead shall not have died in vain ; that this nation, 
under God, shall have a new birth of freedom ; and 
that the government of the people, by the people, and 
for the people, shall not perish from the earth." 



FOR several years efforts had been made to enlist 
the vSympathies of the survivors of New Jersey 
regiments for the purpose of securing the erec- 
tion of monuments to mark the position occupied 
by each of them on Gettysburg battle-field. For a 
long time little progress was made, until at a meeting 
of the Eighth Regiment Association a bill was pre- 
pared and presented to the Legislature for State aid in 
the work of erecting monuments, which was enacted 
into a law. The Twelfth New Jersey Regiment 
previous to this with commendable promptness and 
energy went voluntarily to work to procure a monu- 
ment for themselves and were the first New Jersey 
organization to erect and dedicate a monument on the 

In 1885 the Legislature passed the bill entitled ''An 
act to provide for the erection of suitable monuments 
to mark the position of New Jersey regiments upon 
the battle-field of Gettysburg," which provided for the 
appointment by the Governor of three commissioners, 
to be known as " the Gettysburg Battle-field Commis- 


sion of New Jersey," and empowering them to call to 
their aid one officer or enlisted man who was present 
at the battle of Gettysburg, from each New Jersey 
regiment and battery there engaged, to assist them in 
locating the lines and positions occupied by their respec- 
tive regiments and batteries. This bill became a law on 
May 27, 1886, and the Governor subsequently appointed 
the following Commissioners : Colonel James N. Duffy 
of Newark, Honorable William H. Corbin of Elizabeth 
and Honorable Gottfried Kreuger of Newark. The 
Commissioners organized by the selection of Colonel 
Duffy for president and Honorable William H. Corbin 
as Secretary. In accordance with that provision of the 
law w^hich authorized the selection of representatives 
of the several regiments and batteries engaged at 
Gettysburg, to aid in locating the sites of their 
respective commands, the following were selected by 
the commission : 

First Infantry — First Sergeant William Brant. 

Second Infantry — Surgeon Lewis W. Oakley, Lieu- 
tenant Joseph Donovan. 

Third Infantry — First Sergeant A. W. Cattell. 

Fourth Infantry — John P. Beech. 

Fifteenth Infantry — Corporal Jacob Reidinger. 

Fifth Infantry — Colonel William J. Sewell. 

Sixth Infantry — Joseph Smith. 

Seventh Infantry — First Sergeant W. H. H. Condit, 
Theodore Searing. 

Eighth Infantry — Sergeant Benjamin Murphy. 


Col. James N. Duffy, President 
Hon. William H. Corbin, Secretary. 


y, President. 

Hon. Gottfried Krueger. 



Eleventh Infantry — Frank P. Mulcahy. 
Twelfth Infantry — Sergeant James White. 
Thirteenth Infantry — Samuel Toombs. 
First Cavalry — Lieutenant George A. Bowne. 
Battery " B," First Artillery — Captain A. Judson 

The Commission, with these representatives, visited 
the Gettysburg battle-field on the first of July follow- 
ing and selected the positions for the monuments to the 
several regiments. When the expenses of the trip were 
defrayed and the payment to the Gettysburg Battle- 
field Memorial Association of $3,000 was made, it was 
found that but $370 remained for each regiment and 
battery with which to erect a monument. 

The Thirteenth New Jersey Regiment held its first 
reunion since the war at Orange on October 13th 
following, and appointed a committee on monument 
which promptly organized and submitted a design for 
the approval of the Commission. As the cost was to 
be two thousand dollars, and the State appropriation 
was only three hundred and seventy dollars, the Com- 
mission approved the design, the committee of the 
Thirteenth Regiment becoming responsible for the 
balance of the money. This was the first monument 
erected and dedicated by the State Commission. 

In 1886 and 1887 the act creating the Commission 
was amended by increasing the amount to be appropri- 
ated to each regiment and battery to nine hundred and 
fifty dollars each, and this sum was increased to one 


thousand dollars by voluntary subscriptions from a few 
public-spirited and patriotic gentlemen. 

The Commission presented its first report to the 
Legislature of 1887, wherein is set forth the several 
locations as agreed upon, and which will be found 
marked on the map accompanying this book. 

The work of the Commission has been most admira- 
bly performed, and the greatest care has been exer- 
cised that in every particular, the foundations, material 
and workmanship shall be of the very best, and the 
most durable in quality. These stones are not erected 
for a day but for all time and they will stand for 
centuries silent monitors of the greatest battle of 
modern times ; and coming generations will read the 
mscriptions engraved on them with mingled feelings 
of curiosity and respect for the valor of the men who 
so stubbornly fought on that bloody field for the integ- 
rity of the Republic and the rights of mankind.^ 



The handsome stone which commemorates the 
services of the members of this regiment in their 
gallant defense of Cemetery Ridge on the third day 
of July, was erected by private subscription among 
the members of the regiment and their friends, and 
was the first of the New Jersey monuments put up. 
As early as 1882, members of the regiment interested 
themselves in the work, and at the annual meeting of 


the Society of the Twelfth Regiment New Jersey 
Volunteers in 1883, a monument committee, compris- 
ing Comrades Joseph Burroughs, Frank M. Acton 
and James S. Kiger, was appointed. At the next 
meeting in 1884, the committee was enlarged by the 
appointment of Comrades H. F. Chew and George 
Danenhower. Under the active surpervision of this 
committee the necessary funds were raised and on the 
26th of May, 1886, the monument was formally dedi- 
cated. Captain F. M. Riley of Bridgeton, the Presi- 
dent of the Association presented the monument to the 
Gettysburg Battle-Field Memorial Association and 
it was accepted by the Secretarj^ J. M. Krauth, Esq. 
Colonel William E. Potter, who was Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company K at the time of the battle, 
delivered the oration. 

The monument is constructed of Richmond granite, 
a very durable stone, and is twelve feet six inches in 
height. ^ It is located in the centre of the position 
occupied by the regiment, and is one of the most 
prominent in the whole line. The base of the monu- 
ment is four feet eight inches square, and tw^o feet 
high with sides rustic-dressed. The sub-base is three 
feet eight inches square and eighteen inches high, fine 
hammered, and containing this inscription : '* 2d Brig. 
3d Div. 2d Corps," on three of its sides. The die is 
two feet eight inches square by four feet ten inches in 
height, polished on the two faces fronting Round Top 
avenue and inscribed as follows ; On first face : 



" In memory of the men ol the Twelfth Regiment 
New Jersey Infantry Volunteers, who fell upon this 
field July 2d and 3d 1863, and who elsewhere died 
under the flag, this monument is dedicated by their 
surviving comrades as an example to future genera- 

On the second face : 

'*Buck and Ball 
calibre 69." 
" This regiment made two separate charges on the 
Bliss barn and captured it." 

The capstone is three feet two inches square by two 
feet high, upon each face of which has been placed the 
badge of the Second Corps, the Trefoil, raised and 

The capstone is surmounted by a pedestal upon 
which is a representation of the missiles so effectively 
used by the regiment in repelling the charge of the 
enemy — buck and ball. The monument was con- 
structed by Mr. Michael Reilly of Camden, N. J., and 
cost entire $1,000.00. 


Under the provisions of the law by which the New 
Jersey Gettysburg Battle-Field Commission are gov- 
erned, the Twelfth Regiment was entitled to a monu- 
ment by the State, and the Commission very wisely 
determined to place a substantial marker on the site 
of the Bliss barn, in the capture of which the Twelfth 
had performed one of the most daring and heroic acts 



which characterized the battle. The site of the Bliss 
barn had been purchased bv the Fourteenth Con- 
necticut Regiment, who also charged upon the enemy 
secreted there, and burned it, but they generously 
accorded to the State Commission the right to put a 
marker there for the Twelfth Regiment. This marker 
or tablet is one massive piece of Ouincy granite, ten 
feet three inches long, three feet nine inches wide and 
two feet thick, extending into the ground five feet, and 
weighs about eight tons, and was constructed b}' Messrs. 
Frederick tk Field, of Quincy, Mass. The part above 
the ground measures five feet three inches in height. 
The stone is in the form of a tablet and base combined, 
cut solid, and the upper part is polished front and back 
and suitably inscribed. On the slant, or top, are two 
crossed bayonets, cars^ed, and corps badge laid on top> 
face of same polished. Also '• 12th X. J. Vols," in 
raised and bold face letters. On front is the following 
inscription : 

" Erected by the State of New Jersey, 1888, in honor 
of the 1 2th Regiment of Volunteers, a detachment of 
which in the afternoon of Julv 2, 1863, charged the 
Bliss house and barn here, capturing the enemv's 
skirmish reserve of 7 officers and 85 men stationed 

On the rear of the tablet is the following : 

*' On the morning of Julv 3 another detachment of 
the regiment charged, capturing the buildings, one 
officer and one min, and driving back the skirmish 
reserve. The regiment lost m their charges 60 officers 
and men." 



The beautiful memorial stone of the Thirteenth 
Regiment was the second New Jersey monument 
erected on the battle-field, and the first in which the 
State Commission was officially interested. This regi- 
ment manifested a verY marked interest in the work of 
the Commission, and in the erection of its monument. 
At a meeting of the Regimental Association in Septem- 
ber, 1886, a monument committee, comprising the fol- 
lowing members of the association was appointed : F. 
H. Harris, A. iM. Matthews, J. J. H. Love, Albert 
Delano, Samuel Toombs, John Grimes, W. S. Clarke,. 
M. Conners, Charles Webber, 13. A. Ryerson, G. W. 
Lawrence, W. B. Jacobus, William H. Pridham, 
Andrew Jackson, Jacob White, Joseph E. Crowell^ 
Ogden Foxcroft, Charles A. Hopkins. The committee 
worked so faithfully and diligently that by the next 
July — but ten months from the time of their appoint- 
ment—they had secured enough funds which, added to 
the State appropriation, enabled them to dedicate the 
monument with appropriate ceremonies on July i, 
1887, addresses being made by Major-General Henry 
W. Slocum, His Excellency Governor Robert S. 
Green, Honorable William H. Corbin, Adjutant-Gen- 
eral W. S. Stryker, Captain A. M. Matthews and Dn 
J. J. H. Love. 

The monument stands on a knoll in an open space in 
McAllister's woods, directly overlooking Rock Creek,, 
the site being, as near as could be determined, exactly 
where the colors of the regiment stood on the third 
day of July, 1863. The monument is a tablet-shaped 



bowlder, seven feet high, five feet nine inches across 
the face, two feet ten inches thick at bottom, tapering- 
to two feet in thickness at the top, and was constructed 
by the Smith Granite Company of Boston, Mass. This 
tablet rests on a granite support six feet six inches 
broad at the base, three feet in height and four feet 
thick, all supported by a rock foundation made of 
broken stone and Portland cement. The excavation 
for the foundation is six feet in depth below the 
original ground surface, and the stone work has been 
carried up four feet above the ground line. This pro- 
tects it absolutely from frost, and as there are but two 
immense stones in the monument itself it will require 
an extraordinary revulsion of nature to disturb it. 
The four feet of foundation above the ground surface 
has been concealed from view by mounding it over and 
sodding it carefully. The entire height of monument 
above original ground line is fourteen feet. The height 
of monument proper ten feet. On the easterly face of 
the stone is carved a figure, life-size, of a soldier kneel- 
ing and in the act of firing. He is represented as in 
the woods, his haversack and canteen at the foot of a 
tree, and all the detail of uniform and equipments faith- 
fully portrayed. Across the stone is the legend : 
'' 13 New Jersey Vols." The inscription on the 
western face is as follows : 

13TH Regiment, N. J. Volunteers, 

3D brigade, 1ST DIVISION, I2TH CORPS. 

Thirteenth Regiment, N. J. Volunteers, reached this 
battle-field 5 P. M. July i, 1863, and with the brigade 


Avent into position on the north side of Wolf Hill. 
During the night occupied a position in support of 
Battery M., First N. Y. Artillery. July 2, in morning, 
held position near Gulp's Hill ; in afternoon marched 
to relief of Third Corps near Round Top ; at night 
returned to right of the army. July 3d occupied posi- 
tion marked by this monument, supporting Second 
Massachusetts and Twenty-seventh Indiana in their 
charge on Confederate flank. In evening moved to 
extreme right to support Gregg's Cavalry. 

Killed and mortally wounded, 2 ; wounded, 19. 

Mustered in August 25, 1862. Discharged June 8, 


Antietam, I862. Nancy's Creek, 1864. 
Chancellorsville, 1863. Peach-Tree Creek, 1864. 

Gettysburg, 1863. Siege of Atlanta, 1864. 

Resaca, 1864. March to the Sea, 1864. 

Cassville, 1864. Siege of Savannah, 1864. 

Dallas, 1864. Averysboro, 1865. 

Kulp's Farm, 1864. Bentonville, 1865. 

Total losses during the war: Killed or Died of 
Wounds, 75. Died of Disease and in Prison, 43. 
Wounded, 244. Total, 362. 


[First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifteenth Regiments 

The monument erected to the First New Jersey 
Brigade is one of the most conspicuous objects on the 
battle-field. It represents a watch-tower and is forty 



feet in height, being constructed mainly of battle-field 
granite — a dark colored and exceedingly hard stone — 
the trimmings being of light granite. At the base the 
monument is eight feet thick and in the entablature in 
front the inscription is placed. The Sixth Corps 
badge — a Greek cross — is cut in the stone above and 
the fluted columns on each side give it the appearance 
of being an entrance way to the interior. Bronze 
medallions of General Philip Kearny, who organized 
the brigade, and of General A. T. A. Torbert, who 
commanded it at Gettysburg, are conspicuously 
placed, one on each side. A carved stone, weighing 
several tons, containing the State arms and the number 
by which each regiment was known, the figures being 
interlaced with leaves and vines, is one of the attractive 
features of this handsome design. While this tower 
marks the position of the brigade on the third day of 
July, each regiment has separate markers designating 
their position, the marker for the Fourth Regiment 
being placed a little south of Power's Hill, that regi- 
ment having been on duty with the division trains 
during the battle. The brigade monument was de- 
signed by, and the contract awarded to, the New 
England Monument Company of 1321 Broadway, 
New York. The monument bears the following 

inscriptions : 

Front : 

First Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers. 

Brig.-Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert. 

(ist 2d 3d 4th and 15th Regiments Infantry). 

1st Brig. 1st Div. 6th Corps. 


July 2 in reserve. July 3 and 4, detached from the 
Corps, held this position. 

Erected by the State of New Jersey, A. D. 1888, in 
tegtimony of the patriotism, courage and patient 
endurance of her voliuiteer soldiers. 

Rear : 

'* Kearn3^'s New Jersey Brigade " 
Fought in all the important battles of the Army of 
the Potomac from May 1861 to the end of the w^ar at 
Apommattox Court House in 1865. 

Total Strength 13,805, including loth, 23d and 40th 
Regiments of New Jersey Volunteers which were 
attached to the Brigade. 


This monument located on the west side of the 
Emmetsburg road, just south of the Rogers house 
is a massive and enduring structure, and is made 
of Hallo well, Me., granite. The base is six feet square, 
and the total height fifteen feet six inches, and weighs 
about fifteen tons. The die or lettered piece of monu- 
ment rests on two bases and contains the following 

inscriptions : 

Front : 

5 New Jersey Vols. 

Col. William J. Sewell. 

3d Brig. 2d Div. 3d Corps. 

July 2, 1863. 

Left side: 
The Regiment first held the skirmish line 400 yards 
to the front and left of this spot, and afterwards to 
position in the line of battle here. 



Right side : 

Losses — Killed, i8; wounded, 60 ; missing, 16; total, 
94, being one-half the number engaged. 

On a polished band on front of second base or 
plinth in raised letters the legend : 

Erected by the State of New Jersey, 1888. 


Mustered in August 22, 1861. 

Consolidated with 7th Regiment N. J. Vols. 

Nov. 6. 1864. 

Engaged in 32 battles. 

The shaft has an emblem carved in high relief, con- 
sisting of two muskets, cartridge box and belt, with a 
laurel wreath at the stocks, enclosing a large figure 5 
in centre. These military accoutrements are full size 
and modeled from the actual implements, being cor- 
rect in every detail. The neck of the shaft has a band 
of thirteen polished face stars raised above the surface. 
The monument is finished with an appropriate cap, 
and is an imposing and handsome structure. The 
design and the work is by Messrs. Frederick & Field 
of Quincy, Mass. 


This monument, erected near the Devil's Den, is of 
the obelisk style and is composed of four pieces. It 
measures five feet six inches square at the bottom and 
stands nineteen feet high. On front of the second base 
or plinth is carved on the stone the corps badge, the 

348 '"^tL f^" J ERSE Y TROOPS 

face of which is highly polished. On this rests the die 
piece each side, of which is polished, and contains the 
following inscriptions : 

Front : 

6th New Jersey Volunteers. 

Lieut. Col. S. R. Gilkyson. 

3d Brig. (Burling's) 

2d Div. 3d Corps. 

Erected by State of New Jersey 1888. 

Right : 

Engaged here July 2, 1863, being detached from 

the Brigade. 

Supported batteries on Cemetery Ridge, July 3. 

Losses — Killed, 5 ; wounded, 29 ; missing, 7. Total, 41. 

Left : 

Mustered in Aug. 19, 1861. 

Consolidated with 8th Regt. N. J. V. Oct. 12, 1864. 

Engaged in 30 battles. 

The top of the die is heavily moulded and on front is 
a finely carved United States shield. Around the top 
of the die under the moulding is a row of carved rifle 
balls. On the die rests the obelisk having on its front 
two crossed muskets and a wreath of laurel finely 
carved in bold relief. The monument is constructed of 
the best quality of selected Barre granite and weighs 
about twelve tons. Messrs. Frederick & Field are the 
contractors and makers. 

Monument Battery B, ist N. J. Art, 
(Clark's Battery.) 



The stone which marks the heroic services of this 
reg-iment is unique in character and different from any- 
thing else on the field. It is a correct representation 
of a minie ball, and is of mammoth proportions, and 
mounted on two bases. These bases are of light 
Ouincy granite finely dressed, and the rifle ball is of 
dark Ouinc}^ highly polished. The dark color of the 
polished surface of the ball makes a fine contrast with 
the light color of the cut surfaces of the bases, and the 
effect is decidedly novel and pleasing. The first base 
measures six square feet chamfered on top to receive 
another octao^on base. On the front side is raised a 
large Third Corps badge on which appears the figure 
7 enclosed by a carved laurel wreath. The other seven 
sides contain the inscriptions on polished surfaces as 

No. I — /th New Jersey Vols. July 2, 1863. 

No. 2— "^Killed 24, wounded JJ, missing 13, total 1 14. 

No. 3 — Here Colonel Francine fell. 

No. 4 — First Position 300 yards N. E. of this, f^eav- 

ily engaged there. Moved here to reinforce 

Graham's brigade. 
No. 5— Erected by the State of New Jersey 1888. 
No. 6— Mustered in Sept. 3, 1861. Mustered out 

July 17, 1865. Engaged in 38 battles. 
No. 7 — 3d Brig. 2d Div. 3d Corps. 

* This is an error. The casualties will l;e found on page 258 of this 


The rifle ball measures three feet two inches in 
diameter, and the Avhole monument will stand ten feet 
six inches high above foundation, and will weigh 
about twelve tons. The foundation being raised about 
two and a-half feet from the ground surface, with a 
symmetrical mound of earth and grass at the base 
makes it one of the most attractive objects on the 
ground. Messrs. Frederick & Field of Quincy, Mass., 
are the designers and makers. 


This nionument, situated beyond the famous wheat- 
field, is a graceful shaft, surmounted by a cap, the 
crowning feature of which is the Third Corps badge. 
The base measures five feet four inches square, on 
which rests a second base or plinth, which supports 
the die or lettered piece of the monument. This die 
measures three feet one inch square, and is four feet 
three inches high. On the front appears the figure 8 
encircled by a finely carved laurel wreath. The shaft 
rests upon the die, and is handsomely embellished, 
having in front two crossed muskets and flag carved in 
high relief. The cap surmounting the shaft is finely 
moulded and carved. The monument was made by 
Messrs. Frederick & Field of Quincy, Mass., and is 
constructed of the best quality of light Quincy granite, 
and weighs thirteen tons. The following are the 
inscriptions on the stone : 


Profit : 

8th New Jersey Volunteers. 

Col. John Ramsey. 

3d Brig. (Burling's). 

2d Div. 3d Corps. 

Erected by the State of New Jersey 1888. 

Engaged here July 2, 1863, being detached from 

the Brigade. 
Supported batteries on Cemetery Ridge July 3d. 

Took into action 170. 

Killed 7; wounded 7 officers, 31 men; missing 2. 

Total 47. 

Lt/t : 

Mustered in Sept. 14, 1861. 

Mustered out July 17, 1865. 

Engaged in 38 Battles. 

Casualties — Killed 8 officers, 125 men; wounded 38 

officers, 583 men. Died 2 officers, 149 men. Total 905. 


The handsome design for the monument to this 
regiment is by The Smith Granite Company of Boston, 
Mass., and represents an open book, mounted on a 
pedestal of rock work. It stands about ten feet in 
height and is finely proportioned. It stands near the 
Smith or Essex house on the Emmetsburg road, and 
shows the most advanced position held by the regi- 
ment during its fierce struggle with superior numbers 
of the enemy. The following are the inscriptions: 



nth New Jersey Vols. 

Col. Robert McAllister. 

1st Brig. 2d Div. 3d Corps. 

July 2, 1863. 

Mustered in August 18, 1862. 

Mustered out July 1865. 

Engaged in 29 Battles. 

Erected by the State of New Jersey, i 

This stone marks the spot reached by the right of 
the regiment, the left extending toward the southeast. 
The position was held under a severe fire which killed 
or disabled nearly three-fifths of the regiment, includ- 
ing every officer present above the rank of lieutenant. 

Number engaged 275. Killed 31, wounded 109, 
missing 13. Total 153. Of the missing six are sup- 
posed to have been killed. 


The monument for this battery is of symmetrical 
proportions and beautiful in design. Its general 
dimensions are as follows : Base five feet square and 
total height ten feet. It is hexagonal in design and 
surmounted by a counterfeit cannon ball which adds 
to the attractiveness of its appearance, and the whole 
is made of granite from the quarries at Barre, Vt. 
The design and workmanship are by George Brown & 
Co., of Newark, N. J. The following inscriptions are 
cut in square sunken letters : 


Front : 

Battery A i. N. J. Art., from its position in reserve 
S. W. of Powers' Hill, galloped into action at 3 P. M. 
July 3. 1863. Fired 120 rounds shrapnel at Pickett's 
column, and 80 shell at a battery in left front. 

Erected by the State of New Jersey, 1888. 

South side : 

Served August 12, 1861, to June 22, 1865. 
Engaged in 30 battles. 

XortJi side : 

Losses — Killed 2, wounded 7. Position in action 45 
yards E. of this stone. 


This iiionument is a large massive structure, measur- 
ing at bottom six feet three inches long and five feet 
three inches wide. Its height is twelve feet six 
inches and weighs thirteen tons. It consists of but 
four pieces and is constructed throughout of the best 
dark Quinc}' granite. The die or lettered piece of 
monument measures four feet long, three feet wide 
and is five feet eight inches high. On each end is 
carved a representation of a cannon and two rammers 
which are faithful reproductions of the guns actually 
used by this battery at Gettysburg. The finial or cap 
has a band of thirteen stars and terminates with an 
enlarged representation of a cannon ball Avhich is cut 
soUd on the stone, and is highl}^ polished. The style 



of the monument is pleasing and eminently suitable for 
the brave batter}- for whose services it is erected by a 
grateful State. The polished ball crowning the monu- 
ment is especially suitable and is well calculated to 
show the beauty of the Ouincy granite. The die 
piece contains the following inscriptions : 

Front : 

Clark's Batter3\ 
Battery B, ist New Jersey Artillery fought here 
from 2 until 7 o'clock on July 2, 1863, firing 300 rounds 
of ammunition. Losses — Killed i ; wounded 16 ; 
missing 3. 

Erected by State of New Jersey, 1888. 

Rear : 

Mustered in September 3, 1861. 
Mustered out June 16, 1865. 
Engaged in 26 battles, including all the important 
actions on the Peninsula, Fredericksbui-g, Chancellors- 
ville, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, Appomattox. 


The position of this regiment near Rummel's farm, 
about three miles from the battle-field proper, is 
marked by a handsome stone. The monument is a 
massive structure consisting of six pieces, and is six 
feet square at bottom and fifteen feet high. It is 
surmounted by an elaborate emblem, carved in the best 
manner representing saddle, uniform, carbine, sabre, 


bugle, and in fact all the implements used by cavalry. 
This emblem is two feet four inches by two feet four 
by three feet four inches in height, and is a fine piece 
of artistic carving in Westerly granite, all the rest of 
the monument being of dark Quincy granite. The die 
piece on which the lettering is put is two feet nine 
inches by two feet nine, and six feet high. At the top 
is a band of raised polished face stars. The die is 
polished on all four sides. The cap is three feet five 
inches square by one foot ten inches, and on the 
front is the cavalry corps badge raised on a pediment 
the face of which is highly polished. The weight of 
this monument is about fourteen tons, and Messrs. 
Frederick & Field are the designers. The following 
are the inscriptions on the stone : 

North Front : 

First New Jersey Cavalry. 

Maj. Myron H. Beaumont. 

I St Brigade, 2d Cavalry Division. 

July 3, 1863. 

Erected by the State of New Jersey 1888. 

West Side : 

Organized in September, 1861, and served to the end of 

the War. Participated in 97 Engagements. 

Lost — Killed in Action, 79; Died of Wounds, etc., 170; 

Died prisoners of war, 34 ; Missing (supposed 

dead), 12. 

Monument First N. J. Cavalry. 


luist Side : 

Fought here July 3, 1863, both mounted and dis- 
mounted, holding this position several hours. 
Assisted in repelling the charges 
of the Enemy's Cavalry. 

South Side : 


Col. Hugh H. Janeway. Capt. Moses H. Malesbury. 

Lt.-Col. Virgil Broderick. Lieut. Alexander Stewart. 

Maj. John H. Shellmire. '* Edward E. Jemison. 

'' James H. Hart. " John W. Bejlis. 

'' John H. Lucas. " Voorhees Dye. 

Capt. Thomas R. Haines. '' Alanson Austin. 


The formal dedication of the New Jersey monu- 
ments took place on Saturday, June 30th, under the 
direction of the Governor, Comptroller and Adjutant- 
General, in connection with the Gettysburg Commis- 
sion of the State. A provisional regiment from the 
National Guard, commanded by Colonel Campbell of 
the First Regiment, survivors of New Jersey regi- 
ments present at the battle, and a large number of 
citizens and public men were present by invitation of 
the State. His Excellency Governor Robert S. Green 
was the orator of the occasion and five-minute addresses 
were made by representatives of the several regiments 
who participated in the battle. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Joseph Hooker was born in Hadley, Mass., November 
13, 1814; graduated at West Point July i, 1837; served on 
frontier and garrison duty till 1846, and 1846-48, in the war 
with Mexico on the staff of Generals Persifer Smith, 
Hamer and Butler; in 1847 appointed assistant adjutant- 
general ; brevetted captain, major and lieutenant-colonel 
for gallantry at Monterey, the National Bridge, and 
Chepultepec. In February, 1853, he resigned from the 
army and engaged in farming in California, also as super- 
intendent of military roads in Oregon. On the outbreak 
of the civil war (1861) he tendered his services to the 
government and was appointed (May 17, 1861,) brigadier- 
general of volunteers, serving in the defences of Washing- 
ton and on the lower Potomac until March, 1862, when he 
was assigned *o the command of a division of the Third 
Corps, Army of the Potomac ; in the Peninsular campaign, 
1862, was engaged in the siege of Yorktown, April- 
May; battle of Williamsburg, May 5; Fair Oaks (second 
day), Frazier's Farm and Malvern Hill. Promoted to be 
major-general of volunteers, to date from the battle of 
Williamsburg, continuing in command of a division and 
engaged at the battle of Manassas, August 29-30, and 
Chantilly, September i; appointed to command the First 
Corps, September 6, 1862, he displayed great bravery at 
South Mountain and Antietam, being severely w^ounded at 
the latter battle and disabled until November when he 
returned to the field, having in the mean time (September 


20) been appointed brigadier-general in the regular army, 
and on Burnside's succession to the command of the Army 
of the Potomac was assigned to command the centre 
grand division (Third and Fifth Corps) in the new organi- 
zation of that army. In January, 1863, succeeded Burnside 
in command of the Army of the Potomac, and in May fol- 
lowing fought the battle of Chancellorsville. At the time 
of the invasion of Pennsylvania, the Army of the Poto- 
mac had reached the vicinity of Frederick, Md,, when? 
owing to the refusal of General Halleck to place the 
troops at Harper's Ferry at the disposal of Hooker, the 
latter requested to be (June 27), and was, relieved from the 
command of the army the next morning. For the skill 
and energy by which he first covered Washington and 
Baltimore from the meditated blow of the advancing 
enemy. General Hooker received the thanks of Con- 
gress. In September, 1863, he was assigned to the 
command of the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, and 
accompanied them west where they were consoli- 
dated into the Twentieth Corps, Army of the Cumber- 
land ; was distinguished at the capture of Lookout 
Mountain, battle of Missionary Ridge (November 24-25), 
the pursuit of the Confederate army, and the action of 
Ringgold, Ga., November 27, 1863. In the invasion of 
Georgia by the army of General Sherman, Hooker led his 
corps in the almost constant fighting up to and including 
the siege of Atlanta, until July 30, 1864, when on a 
question of command he was relieved at his own request. 
He subsequently commanded the Northern Department, 
the Department of the East, and that of the Lakes; 
brevetted major-general United States Army for gallantry 
at Chattanooga, and October, 1868, retired upon full rank 
of major-general. General Hooker died October 31, 1879, 
at his home in Garden City, L. I. 




George Gordon Meade was born in Cadiz, Spain, 
December 31, 1815. during the consulship of his father, 
Richard W. Meade. On the return of the family to the 
United States, George was sent to the famous school 
for boys in Washington, D. C., then kept by the late 
Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase. In 1831 he entered the 
United States Military Academy at West Point, where 
he was graduated four years later, and commissioned 
a brevet second lieutenant of the Third United States 
Artillery. He received the full rank the same year, and 
took part in the Seminole Indian War in Florida. In 
1836 he resigned his commission and engaged in civil 
engineering. In 1842 he returned to the artillery under 
appointment as second lieutenant of topographical engi- 
neers. During the Mexican War he served as engineer 
on the staffs of Generals Taylor and Scott, distinguishing 
himself in the battles of Palo-Alto, Resaca-de-la-Palma 
and Monterey, and receiving as an acknowledgement of 
his gallantry a brevet of first lieutenant. He was pro- 
moted to a full first lieutenancy in August, 185 t, and to a 
captaincy of engineers in May, 1855. 

Upon the first call of the National Government for vol- 
unteers in 1861, Meade was summoned to Washington, 
appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, and assigned 
to the command of the Second Brigade of the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserve Corps. Soon after the Corps was attached 
to the Army of the Potomac, and was engaged in the 
advance on Richmond. 

During the Peninsula campaign General Meade took 
an active part in the battles of Mechanicsville, Gaines' 
Mill and Glendale, being severely wounded in the latter. 
He speedily recovered, however, and in September, 1862, 
was assigned to the command of a division in the First 


Army Corps. He again distinguished himself in the 
battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and when Gen- 
eral Hooker was wounded in the latter engagement, 
General Meade was placed in command of the Corps, 
sustaining a slight wound and having two horses killed 
beneath him. For his services in this emergency he was 
promoted to be major-general of volunteers in November, 
1862. On General Hooker's recovery, General Meade 
returned to the command of his division, and with it led 
the attack, in December, 1862, at Fredericksburg. During 
the same month he was placed in command of the Fifth 
Corps, and with it proceeded to Chancellorsville, where 
it covered the retreat of the army. 

On June 28, 1863, the Army of the Potomac being at 
Frederick, Md., President Lincoln appointed General 
Meade com.mander-in-chief, as successor to General 
Hooker, who had resigned. About the middle of July 
General Meade recrossed into Virginia, where he had 
several encounters with the enemy in October and Novem- 
ber, 1863. He was second in command during the opera- 
tions against Richmond in 1864, his immediate army 
fighting the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court 
House and Cold Harbor, and being engaged in the siege 
of Petersburg. Beyond the honors conferred upon him, 
already mentioned, he was promoted to the rank of major 
of engineers in the Regular Army June 18, 1862; advanced, 
by the several grades of lieutenant-colonel and colonel, 
to the brigadier-generalship in the Regular Army July 3, 
1863; received the thanks of Congress during the session 
of 1863-64 ; and was promoted to the rank of major- 
general in the Regular Army, to date from August 18, 
1864, on Febuary i, 1865. When, on July i, 1865, the 
army was reorganized on a peace basis, he was assigned 
to the command of the Military Division of the Atlantic, 


with headquarters at Philadelphia, where he resided in a 
dwelling presented his wife by the citizens until his death 
on November 6, 1872. 


Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, major-general United States 
Volunteers, was born near Deckertown, N. J., January 14, 
1836. He entered the United States Military Academy 
at West Point on June 20, 1856, and, with a number of 
advanced students, was graduated in April, 1861, by 
special permission of the War Department on the prof- 
fered pledge that they would, as young officers, complete 
their education on the field of battle. The day he was 
graduated he was also married and mustered into the 
military service. He was appointed a second lieutenant 
of artillery on May 6, and commissioned captain in the 
Fifth Regiment of New York Volunteers, better known 
as Duryea's Zouaves, three days later. This regiment 
was then encamped at Fortress Monroe. During a battle 
on June 10 he was wounded in the right thigh with a 
grape shot. 

Kilpatrick resumed the field in September following, 
and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Second 
Regiment of New York Cavalry Volunteers, the " Harris 
Light Cavalry, " of which he became colonel in December, 
1862, and was also promoted to be first lieutenant in the 
Regular Army. In addition to these promotions he was 
appointed a member of the board for examining the 
cavalry officers of the volunteer service, and inspector- 
general of General McDowell's division. In July and 
August he made a series of raids for the purpose of break- 
ing up the Confederate General Jackson's communication 
with Richmond, striking the Virginia Central Railroad 
at Beaver Dam, Frederick Hall and Hanover Junction, 


inflicting all the damage possible. He participated in the 
Rappahannock campaign, in the second battle of Bull Run 
and many minor actions in the Maryland campaign, and 
in General Stoneman's raid to the rear of General Lee's 
army, commanded a brigade of cavalry. His boldness as 
a cavalry officer was a marvel alike to friend and foe. 
He was promoted to be a brigadier-general of volunteers 
in June. 1863, and at the memorable battle of Gettysburg 
he commanded both a brigade and a division. 

In April, 1864, at General Sherman's request, Kilpatrick 
was ordered to duty with that army in the West, and 
sustained a severe wound in the battle of Resaca in the 
following month. He was forced by his suffering to 
return to the North; but as soon as he heard of General 
Sherman's intentions toward Atlanta, he hastened to join 
his old chief. During the March to the Sea and the 
subsequent passage through the Carolinas, he commanded 
the cavalry and was actively engaged, although obliged 
to avail himself of the use of a carriage that his officers 
fitted up for him. 

In June, 1865, he was promoted to be a major general 
of volunteers; in the following December he resigned his 
commission in the Regular Army, and in January, 1866, 
his commission in the volunteer army. These resigna- 
tions were prompted by his appointment, in November, 
1865, as United States Minister to Chili, an office he held 
till 1868, when he was recalled. While residing at Santi- 
ago, the Chilian capital, he was married to the niece of 
the Roman Catholic Archbishop, who subsequently accom- 
panied him to his Deckertown home. In the Spring of 
1881, he was re-appointed Minister to Chili, and died at 
his post on December 6 of that year. His remains were 
brought to the United States, reaching New York on 
October 13, 1887, and, after lying in state in the Gover- 


nor's Room of the City Hall, were taken to West Point 
and buried in the military cemetery on the i8th, with the 
honors due his courage, his skill and his rank. 


Alfred T. A. Torbert, major-general United States 
Volunteers, was a native of Delaware, born in July, 1833. 
He was graduated at the United States Military Academy 
at West Point in 1855; commissioned a brevet second lieu- 
tenant, and assigned to the Fifth United States Infantry. 
On reporting for duty he was first engaged in conducting 
recruits to Fort Mcintosh, Texas ; then in scouting against 
the Lipan Indians in the hostilities against the Seminoles 
in Florida ; again on frontier duty with the LHah expedi- 
tion ; and in i860 in the march to New Mexico. At the 
outbreak of the civil war. Lieutenant Torbert was sent to 
New Jersey, where he was employed in mustering volun- 
teers into the service from April till September, 1861. In 
the latter month he was appointed Colonel of the First 
New Jersey Volunteers, and, with his regiment, partici- 
pated in the Peninsula campaign in Virginia, being 
engaged in the siege of Yorktown and the actions at West 
Point, Gaines' Mills, and Charles City Cross Roads. 

On August 28, 1862, he was given command of a brigade 
in the Sixth Army Corps, and fought in the second battle 
of Bull Run, at South Mountain, where he was wounded, 
and at Antietam. His distinguished services in these 
actions gained for him promotion to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, his commission bearing the date of 
November 29, 1862. In June, 1863, he returned from his 
sick leave, was assigned to duty with his old corps, and 
took part in its operations during the winter of 1863-64. 
During the Richmond campaign he won high encomiums 


by his dashing and discreet conduct as a cavalry officer, 
being in command of the cavalry through General Sheri- 
dan's notable raid. He assumed command of the First 
Division on General Sheridan's return, and was in many 
actions in the summer of 1864, Hawes' Shop and Cold 
Harbor being among them. As chief of cavalry of the 
Middle Military Division, he was an active participant in 
all the operations in the Shenandoah Valley, and was 
subsequently in command of the Army of the Shenandoah 
and of various districts in Virginia, till January 15, 1866, 
when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He 
was successively brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, colo- 
nel, and brigadier - general, for his gallantry at Hawes' 
Shop, Winchester, and Cedar Creek, and major-general 
for gallant and meritorious services in the field during the 

On being mustered out of the service he retired to his 
home in Milford, Del., but had been scarcely three years in 
private life when President Grant appointed him United 
States Minister to the Central American States. Two 
years later he was sent to Havana as consul-general, and 
thence to Paris in the same capacity. He entered upon 
his duties in the French capital in the latter part of 1873, 
and held the office till May, 1878. On August 25, 1880, 
General Torbert sailed from New York city in the Havana 
steamship "City of Vera Cruz," and was drowned in the 
foundering of that vessel off the Florida coast on Sunday 
morning following (29th). His body was washed ashore, 
and recovered and reverently buried by some of the saved 
seamen who were attracted by his handsome appearance 
and stalvs^art figure. It was subsequently disinterred and 
and brought north under a military escort detailed by the 
Secretarv of War. 



Colonel Samuel L. Buck, who commanded the Second 
Regiment New Jersey Volunteers at Gettysburg, was born 
of revolutionar}' stock at Bethel, Vt., June 8, 1820. In 
infancy he was taken to Montreal, Province of Quebec, 
and at the breaking out of the first Canadian rebellion 
enlisted in the Montreal Rifle Battalion which was 
detailed for garrison duty during the absence of the 
regular troops. A short time after this he was living in the 
city of New York, and in the year 1838 enlisted in the 
Sixth Regiment National Guard of New York. From 
there Colonel Buck removed to Newark, N. J., and his 
love of military life caused him in 1850 to join the '"Union 
Blues," which was afterward incorporated with the Newark 
City Battalion, New Jersey State Militia, and was com- 
missioned first lieutenant and adjutant. 

In response to the call for seventy-five thousand three 
months' men about sixty or seventy men of the City 
Battalion organized at once and elected Adjutant Buck 
captain. Active measures were taken to organize a regi- 
ment, which was speedily effected, and at the election for 
field officers Captain Buck was elected major. Mustered 
in the United States service at Trenton as the Second 
Regiment New]^Jersey Volunteers, it was ordered to Wash- 
ington, D. C. After a week or more delay in Washington 
the regiment was ordered to report to General Runyon at 
Alexandria, Va. Shortly after the first Bull Run battle 
the regiment was brigaded with the First and Third regi- 
ments under General Kearny as the First New Jersey 
Brigade. On the 31st of December, 1861, Colonel McLean 
resigned and Major Buck was promoted lieutenant-colo- 
nel. At the battle of Gaines' Mills (or Farms) Colonel 
Tucker was killed and Major Ryerson wounded and 


captured. From that time up to and after the battle of 
Antietam Lieutenant-Colonel Buck was the only field 
officer in the regiment. At New Baltimore, Md., July i, 
1862, he received his commission as colonel. At the battle 
of Salem Heights, while in command of the brigade, 
Colonel Buck had his shoulder dislocated by his horse 
falling under him, and being ordered to Washington for 
medical treatment was placed on court-martial duty, 
where the second invasion of Maryland found him. By 
special order of the Secretary of War Colonel Buck was 
granted leave to join his regiment, which he did and con- 
tinued with it to the close of the campaign, when he 
returned to Washington for medical treatment. During 
the Wilderness campaign under General Grant until the 
regiment reached White House Colonel Buck commanded 
the regiment. As the three years for which it enlisted had 
expired some time previous to this the regiment was 
ordered home formuster out, and on July 21, 1864, Colonel 
Buck received his honorable discharge. 


Colonel Henry W. Brown of the Third Regiment, is a 
native of Boston, Mass., and at the beginning of the Civil 
War, resided in Philadelphia. He was engaged in recruit- 
ing a company in that city and was invited to take charge 
of a full company in Woodbury, N. J., which he accepted, 
turning over his Philadelphia men to H. G. Sickell, who 
was at that time organizing a company in Philadelphia. 
On the 29th day of April he received his commission as 
captain of Company A, Third New Jersey Regiment and 
was mustered in May 22, 1861. On the 31st of the same 
month he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the regiment 
and on May 15, 1862, was promoted colonel to succeed 
Colonel Taylor, who had been promoted brigadier-gen- 



eral. Colonel Brown served faithfully with his regiment 
and performed distinguished and gallant services. At 
Salem Heights, Va., on May 3, 1863, he was wounded, 
while commanding the brigade, and again at Spottsyl- 
vania, Va., on May 12, 1864, he was severely injured by a 
shot from the enemy. Colonel Brown remained in the 
service until the close of the war and was mustered out at 
Trenton, June 23, 1864. 


Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ewing was born in the city 
of Trenton, N. J., Sunday, June 6, 1841. He was the son 
of Francis A. Ewing, M. D., and grandson of the Chief 
Justice of New Jersey whose name he bore. In August, 
1859, he sailed as master's mate in the L^nited States 
Steamer Sumter for the African Coast, and on that 
station was transferred to the United States Frigate San 
Jacinto. He was sent home (to Norfolk, Va.) as one of 
the officers in charge of a slaver captured by the latter 
vessel, arriving in January, 1861, just before the outbreak 
of the rebellion. In April of that year he went out 
as ensign of Company A, Third Regiment, under the 
President's call for three months' troops, being then not 
quite twenty years of age. On their return in July he 
went to recruiting for the Sixth Regiment New Jersey 
Volunteers, three years' troops, and on September 9, 1861, 
was commissioned captain of Company B. He served 
with this regiment until January 8, 1863, when he was 
promoted major and transferred to the Fourth Regiment 
New Jersey Volunteers. He was in command of this 
regiment during the Gettysburg campaign and on Sep- 
tember II, 1863, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. 
Colonel Ewing was constantly in serv^ice in the field, and 
was several times wounded, once at Second Bull Run, 


again at Fredericksburg Heights, and again while on 
picket duty. At the expiration of the term of service of 
the regiment, they reenlisted for the war and Colonel 
Ewing went with them. At Spottsylvania Court House 
he received a serious and nearly fatal wound, being shot 
through the body, which kept him an invalid for a long 
time and finally caused his honorable discharge. He 
regained ordinary health, but never fully recovered from 
the effects of his wound. Colonel Ewing died in Trenton 
March 14, 1872, in the thirty-first year of his age. 


In the list of casualties at Gettysburg, every field officer 
of the five New Jersey regiments engaged on the second of 
July — except in the case of Lieutenant-Colonel Gilkyson 
of the Sixth Regiment — was wounded, some of them 
mortally. On this roll of honor appears the name of 
Colonel William J. Sewell, of the Fifth New Jersey. 
Colonel Sewell was born in Ireland in 1835, and coming to 
the United States at an early age, developed a strong love 
for his adopted country as he advanced in years. When 
the call for troops to serve for three years was issued, 
Sewell recruited a company for the Fifth New Jersey 
Volunteers, and on the 28th of August, 1861, received his 
commission as Captain of Company C. On the 7th of 
July, 1862, he was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel of the 
regiment, and on the recalling of Colonel Starr, to his post 
in the regular army, Sewell was on October 21, 1862, com- 
missioned Colonel of the Fifth Regiment. In all the 
trying emergencies of army life Sewell was never found 
wanting. Always watchful for the interests of his men he 
exacted from them a faithful performance of duty, and so 
well did each come to know the other that the regiment 
^yas noted for its steadiness and bravery under the most 



trying circumstances. This faculty, possessed by few men, 
exhibited itself most conspicuously at the battle of 
Chancellorsville, when Sewell led the whole brigade into a 
•charge, and accomplished a signal and valuable service. 
The brigade, under General Mott, had heroically defended 
its position on the Plank road against superior numbers of 
the enemy. General Mott was wounded, and Colonel 
Sewell assumed command. The men were exhausted from 
their severe labors, and had expended almost all their 
ammunition. As no relief came to them they withdrew. 
The enemy at this time grew bold in the prospect of 
victory, and taking possession of some • works which had 
been thrown up for the protection of artillery, they 
defiantly opened fire upon the Federal lines. Colonel 
Sewell seeing the importance of retaking the position 
gallantly led the brigade to the charge and drove the 
rebels from the works. But that fatality which seemed to 
accompany every daring movement at Chancellorsville, 
was experienced by Sewell — the brigade was not supported 
and the brave Jerseymen were compelled to fall back 
exposed to a terrible fire and suffering great loss. 

Colonel Sewell's wounds at Gettysburg were severe, and 
prevented his doing active service in the field for some 
time. He recovered, however, but during the Wilderness 
campaign he was prostrated by exposure. On the second 
of July, 1864, he resigned owing to ill-health, but in 
September following he accepted the colonelcy of the 
Thirty-eighth Regiment and remained with it until its 
term of service expired — October, 1864. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general for gallantry and distinguished services 
at Chancellorsville, and major-general of United States 
Volunteers, for meritorious services during the war. 

At the time of the railroad strikes in 1877 General Sewell 
was appointed by Governor Parker provisional commander 


of the State forces at Phillipsburg,'and to his well-known 
reputation for military ability and personal bravery, is 
largely due the subsidence of the trouble. 

In public affairs General Sewell has occupied a promi- 
nent place. He represented Camden county in the State 
Senate for three successive terms, and in 1880 was 
president of that body. He was elected to the United 
States Senate in 1881, succeeding ex-Governor Theodore 
F. Randolph, and served until March 4, 1887, when his- 
term expired. 


General George C. Burling, the commander of the 
Second New Jersey Brigade, which did such heroic service 
on the second day of July at Gettysburg, was born on the 
17th day of February, 1834, in Burlington county. New 
Jersey, a few miles from the city of Burlington. He was 
reared on his father's farm and educated dt a private 
school conducted by Mr. Aaron at Norristown, Mont- 
gomery county. Pa. He entered into business life in 
Burlington at an early age, and at the breaking out of the 
war was engaged in the retail coal business. He was a 
public-spirited young man and identified himself with 
various measures in which his neighbors and friends were 
interested, being at this time captain of the "Marion 
Rifles " of Burlington — Company K, Fourth New Jersey 
Militia. He promptly offered his services with his com- 
pany to Governor Olden, and was accepted and mustered 
in for three months' service on the 27th of April, 1861. On 
their return home and muster out in July, 1861, Captain 
Burling immediately recruited his original command, and 
with it, a company of over one hundred men, was mustered 
in for three years' service on September 9, 1861, and was 
designated as Company F, Sixth Regiment New Jersey 



Volunteers. On March 19, 1862, he was promoted major 
and on May 7, 1862, received his commission as lieutenant- 
colonel. On the promotion of Colonel Mott to brigadier- 
general of United States Volunteers, Burling was promoted 
colonel of the Sixth Regiment, and, as the senior officer, 
commanded the brigade at Gettysburg, a position he held 
until October of the same year, when ill-health caused him 
to relinquish it, and compelled him to resign on March 4, 
1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general on March 13, 

On the 15th of October, 1862, while colonel commanding 
the Sixth New Jersey Volunteers, Colonel Burling married 
Miss J. T. Reckless of Abingdon township, Montgomery 
county. Pa. (formerly of Philadelphia), and their wedding 
tour extended to Colonel Burling's headquarters at Alex- 
andria, Va., where the bride remained until the command 
was ordered away. After the close of the war, with his 
health greatly broken he went with his family to reside on 
a farm near Byberry (Twenty-third ward of Philadelphia). 
Subsequently he became connected with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, at their main office. Fourth street below Walnut, 
Philadelphia. General Burling died at his residence 1842 
North Eighteenth street, Philadelphia, on December 24, 
1885, from a pulmonary cancer, the result of a contused 
wound received at the battle of Chancellorsville. He had 
been wounded twice previous to this — at Williamsburg, 
May 5, 1863, and at Second Bull Run, August 29-30. 


Colonel Louis R. Francine, of the Seventh Regiment 
New Jersey Volunteers, was born, one account says, at 
Dillerville, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, March 26, 
1838. Another account says he was born in Philadelphia 
in 1839. 1^6 was by profession a civil engineer, graduated 


from the Polytechnic College at Philadelphia in 1855, then 
went to Europe in 1856 and was graduated from the 
L'Ecole Polytechnique at Paris. At the outbreak of 
hostilities Francine was about entering upon the prac- 
tice of his profession, but when the call for three year 
troops was issued he recruited Company A of the Seventh 
Regiment and was commissioned its captain on September 
18, 1861. He was senior captain and acted as field officer 
during the greater part of the Peninsula campaign. July 
8, 1862, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and on 
December 9th of the same year was commissioned colonel, 
succeeding Colonel Revere who had been promoted 
brigadier-general United States Volunteers. Colonel 
Francine was a brave and fearless officer and was engaged 
in rallying his men w^hen he received the wound at Gettys- 
burg from the effects of which he died on July 16, 1863.. 
He was buried from one of the churches in Philadelphia 
with military honors, Major-General A. A. Pleasonton 
commanding the funeral escort. His remains are interred 
at Laurel Hill Cemetery. For his gallant services at 
Gettysburg Colonel Francine w^as brevetted brigadier- 
general of volunteers on July 2, 1863. 


General John Ramsey, w^ho commanded the Eighth 
Regiment New Jersey Volunteers at Gettysburg and was 
wounded there, was one of the young soldiers of the army^ 
and became noted for his daring and energy. He was 
born in the city of New York October 7, 1838, and was in 
his twenty-third year when hostilities began. On the 17th 
of April, 186 1, he enlisted in Company G, Second Regi- 
ment New Jersey Volunteers for three months, as a private, 
and was subsequently elected first-lieutenant by his com- 
pany, being mustered in April 25th. On the election 



of Captain H. M. Baker to the colonelcy Ramsey was 
made captain on May i, 1861. He was mustered out with 
his regiment at the expiration of its term of service, July 
31, r86i. The command participated in no battles and 
Ramsey, who had little relish for that sort of soldiering, 
reentered the service on August 17, 1861, as captain of 
Company B, Fifth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, and 
remained in the army until the war was fought out, being 
mustered out July 17, 1865. On the 7th of May, 1862, he 
was promoted major of the Fifth for distinguished gal- 
lantry at the battle of Williamsburg, and on October 21, 
1862, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of his regiment. 
In April, ICS63, he was promoted Colonel of the Eighth 

Colonel Ramsey took an active part in all the campaigns 
of the Army of the Potomac, from the Peninsula, under 
McClellan, to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox on 
April 9, 1865 — on which day his command formed part of 
the advance line. The only important battle in which he 
was not a participant was Antietam, caused by the deten- 
tion of the Third Corps in the vicinity of Washington 
after the defeat of Pope at the second battle of Bull Run 
This corps had been sent from Harrison's Landing to join 
Pope at Warrenton with all possible despatch, and reached 
there only to be ordered back. On the way back to 
Centreville they engaged the enemy in numerous skirm- 
ishes, and receiving orders to proceed to the front again 
encountered Jackson at Bristoe, whom they compelled to 
retire, and reached Pope a day or two before the second 
battle of Bull Run, in which Ramsey's command took 
part, as also in the battle of Chantilly. The Third Corps 
then proceeded to Alexandria, and the Second New Jersey 
Brigade was ordered to move in light marching order. To 
make all possible speed in reaching their destination, their 


effects were put on board the cars, and these being burned, 
all was lost. The men were used up, many of them with- 
out shoes, and other articles of clothing, and were in no 
condition for the Maryland campaign, which they were 
thus prevented participating in. For distinguished 
services in the campaign before Richmond, Colonel Ram- 
sey was brevetted brigadier-general and by a special 
order of President Lincoln, he was assigned to duty with 
that rank. On June 5, 1864, General Ramsey was assigned 
to the command of the Second Brigade, Second Division, 
Second Army Corps, known as the Corcoran Legion, and 
was one of the commands that was ordered to attack 
Petersburg on the night of June 16, 1864, in which engage- 
ment General Ramsey was wounded. When able for 
duty he was given the command of the First Brigade, 
First Division, Second Army Corps, and remained with it 
until he assumed command of the First Division, Second 
Army Corps. General Ramsey was five times wounded — 
at Second Bull Run, Chancellorsville, Wilderness, Gettys- 
burg and Petersburg. On March 13, 1865, he was 
brevetted major-general of United States Volunteers for 
gallant and meritorious services during the war. 


The subject of this sketch was born in Juniata county, 
Pennsylvania, on June i, 1873, in which State he spent 
the early years of his life, but his war record belongs to 
New Jersey, with whose troops he served during the con- 
tinuance of the conflict. He was one of the very first to 
take up arms in defence of the Union, and he was present 
in the field when General Lee surrendered at Appomattox. 
When the First Regiment, three years' volunteers, was 
being recruited, McAllister was, on May 21, 1861, com- 
missioned its lieutenant-colonel, and with it proceeded to 



the Capital. He was a quiet, steady, fearless man, of 
even temperament and thoroughly self-possessed. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel McAllister remained with the First New 
Jersey Regiment until June 30, 1862, when he was com- 
missioned colonel of the Eleventh New Jersey Regiment, 
then being recruited. This regiment was mustered into 
the United States service August 18, 1862, and was 
assigned to the First Brigade, Second Division, Third 
Army Corps. At Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville 
Colonel McAllister displayed marked heroism. At Gettys- 
burg he was wounded during the second day's fighting in 
the left leg with a minie ball, and in the right foot with a 
fragment of shell. For three months he was unable to 
take the field, but with this exception he served continu- 
ously through the war, from the first battle of Bull Run to 
the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. Colonel McAllister 
was brevetted brigadier-general for his glorious behavior 
at the first "Bull Pen," as the tremendous fight on Boyd- 
ton Plank road, October 27, 1864, was styled, and major- 
general for meritorious conduct throughout the war. 
Since the war he has been engaged as general manager of 
the Ironton Railroad Company, in mining and shipping 
ore to the furnaces in Lehigh Valley. 


John Schoonover was born at Bushkill, Pa., August 12, 
1839. He received his education from the common schools 
of his native place, and the instructions of the Rev. J. K. 
Davis, of Smithville, Pa. At the age of sixteen he began 
the work of teaching and preparation for college. The 
outbreak of the rebellion found him thus employed at 
Oxford, Warren county, N. J. Soon after the proclama- 
tion of President Lincoln calling for seventy-five thousand 
men to serve for three months, Schoonover joined a com- 


pany raised by Captain Campbell at Belvidere. The 
company reported at Trenton, but so quickly had the 
State's quota been filled — the four regiments being com- 
pleted in seven days — that they reached the Capital too 
late for acceptance. As the company was about to return 
to Belvidere, Captain Campbell stepped to the front and 
asked all who were willing to go with him for three years 
to do likewise ; but seven responded — Schoonover being 
one of the seven — the number of three year patriots being 
so small all returned to their homes. But Schoonover's 
patriotism was not of the kind that could rest content 
with the acquisition of such laurels as these, and we soon 
find him again at Trenton as a private in Company D 
(Captain Valentine Mutchler) First New Jersey Regiment 
for three years. This regiment left the State June 28, 
1861. The following September Schoonover was made 
corporal. The ensuing winter, Colonel Torbert, then 
commanding the First Regiment, issued an order directing 
each captain to select a sergeant to prepare for examina- 
tion, the one standing the highest to receive a commission 
as second-lieutenant of Company D. No sergeant of D 
being willing to stand the trial, the subject of this sketch 
was selected to represent that company. Four only 
appeared for examination, the successful one being Com- 
missary Sergeant S. G. Blythe. Schoonover, standing 
second, was promoted commissary sergeant, dating from 
March 24, 1862. He served in that position until August 
2, 1862, when he received a commission as adjutant of the 
Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers, then organizing at 
Trenton. The Eleventh left the State en August 25, 1862, 
and was first engaged in Burnside's attack upon Freder- 
icksburg. This first engagement proved to the men of the 
Eleventh that their adjutant was one on whom they could 
depend. During the desperate fighting of the regiment 


in the woods at Chancellorsville on May 3 and 4, 1862, 
Adjutant Schoonover was conspicuous for his bravery and 
coolness, and received honorable mention therefor. On 
the second of July at Gettysburg he received two wounds 
and six bullet holes through his clothing, and on the third 
his horse was shot under him. He again received slight 
wounds at Spottsylvania and at Barker's Mills, but he never 
thought his wounds sufficiently severe to necessitate going 
to the rear. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in 
1863 and brevetted colonel March 13, 1865, for conspicuous 


Major John T. Hill was born in New Brunswick, N. J., 
July, 1836, and he was therefore twenty-five years of age 
when the war broke out, at which time he was a clerk in 
the Park Bank of New York City. He had no previous 
military training and took but little interest in military 
affairs, but his patriotism was of the most practical sort. 
When hostilities opened he joined a militia company in his 
native city, passing through all the grades from a private 
in the ranks to captain of the company. When recruiting 
began for the Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers Major 
Charles Herbert, private secretary for Governor Olden, 
sought to obtain for Captain Hill the adjutancy, but 
recruiting for the command was so slow that the officers 
became very much discouraged. Company " I " had 
enrolled about thirty men, and it seemed impossible to 
rise beyond that number. Major Herbert sent word to 
Captain Hill that if he would take the company as it was 
and fill it up to the required number he should have the 
captaincy. Notwithstanding the discouragements which 
had operated against enlistments Captain Hill consented, 
resigning his position in the bank, and at once began the 


work of recruiting, in a comparatively short time securing 
the enrollment of one hundred and three names. He was 
at once commissioned and became second in order of 
seniority, Captain Martin having been mustered in one 
week before. The Eleventh Regiment, under Colonel 
McAllister, went to Washington in August, 1862, and just 
before the battle of Fredericksburg was assigned to the 
Third Army Corps, taking part in that desperate engage- 
ment. The following April Captain Hill received a com- 
mission as major of the Twelfth New Jersey Infantry, 
and joined that command in the latter part of the same 
month, a short time before the beginning of the Chancel- 
lorsville campaign. The Twelfth Regiment was in the 
Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Army Corps, 
and was closely engaged with the enemy. After the rout 
of the Eleventh Corps, Colonel Willets being badly 
wounded in the early part of the fight, the command 
devolved upon Major Hill, owing to the absence of the 
lieutenant-colonel, who was sick. The Twelfth sustained 
severe losses in this engagement, and did heroic work 
under the command of Major Hill. At Gettysburg the 
regiment was also under his command, and its splendid 
achievements on that battle-field are fully recorded in 
the preceding pages. After the battle Major Hill 
remained in command until the return of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Davis the latter part of the Summer of 1863, and 
was soon after stricken down with inflammatory rheuma- 
tism, which prostrated h'im for two years. He was 
discharged from the hospital at Annapolis in 1864, much 
against his will, but the board of army surgeons exercised 
the arbitrary power conferred upon them and compelled 
him to take an involuntary, though honorable discharge. 
Major Hill's military record throughout was that of a 
brave and faithful officer, a trusted and honored com- 


mander, and his enforced withdrawal from service was 
regretted by all his comrades in arms. He still resides in 
the city of New Brunswick, and is President of the Ninth 
National Bank, New York City. 


William Elmer Potter, the youngest son of James Boyd 
and Jane Barron Potter, was born June 13, 1840, in Bridge- 
ton, Cumberland county, New Jersey. His grandfather, 
Colonel David -Potter, was a soldier of the Revolution, and 
saw considerable service. He was first colonel of the 
second battalion of Cumberland, and, as such, was in com- 
mand of his regiment forming a part of the brigade of 
Brigadier-General Hugh Mercer, at Perth Amboy in the 
Autumn of 1776. He was elected brigadier-general by the 
Legislature of New Jersey, February 21, 1777, but declined 
the appointment. He again entered active service as colo- 
nel of a battalion of State troops. On the twentieth of 
September, 1777, by order of Governor Livingston, he was 
detached in command of the effective troops of the brigade 
of Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb to reinforce the main 
army under General Washington, then retreating after the 
disastrous battle of the Brandywine. He crossed the Dela- 
ware with his command, and in some one of the skirmishes 
preliminary to the battle of Germantown, or in that battle 
itself, it is not now known which, he was taken prisoner by 
the enemy. He was confined for a long time upon the prison 
hulks in Long Island Sound, and was afterward released 
upon parole, and was not exchanged, at least as late as 
1781. He was afterward marshal of the Admiralty Court 
of New Jersey, sheriff of the County of Cumberland, and 
one of the commissioners to ratify the Constitution of the 
United States. 

The subject of this sketch having determined upon the 


law as a profession, entered the office of Honorable John 
T. Nixon, as a student, in October, 1857. He remained 
until September, 1859, and the same month became a 
student at the law school of Harvard University. From 
this school he graduated in January, 1861, with the degree 
of LL. B., and in September of the same year entered the 
junior class of Princeton College. Under the spur of 
patriotic ardor he abandoned his collegiate studies, and in 
July of the following year enlisted in Company K, Tw^elfth 
Regiment New Jersey Volunteers. He was commissioned 
second lieutenant of the same company August 14, 1862, 
and mustered into the service of the United States as such 
September 4, 1862. He was promoted to a first lieutenancy 
of the same company and regiment August 6, 1863, and to 
the captaincy of Company G February 4, 1864. Captain 
Potter became brevet-major United States Volunteers for 
meritorious services, May i, 1865, by promotion of the 
President of the United States, and was, in 1866, commis- 
sioned aide-de-camp to Governor Marcus L. Ward, of New 
Jersey, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, upon whose 
stafif he served for three years. 

While in the field with hi^ regiment he was detailed as 
ordnance officer of the Third Division, Second Army 
Corps, and acted as such in the campaigns of Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg, on the staff of Major General 
William H. French, and with Brigadier-General Alexander 
Hays. He served in that capacity until October i, 1863^ 
and was then appointed judge-advocate of the division on 
the staff of General Hays, continuing thus until he 
rejoined his regiment and took command of his company. 
He was wounded at the battle of the Wilderness while in 
command of his company on the sixth of May, 1864, and 
reported again for duty at Cold Harbor, Va., June 4, of the 
same year. On the first of July, 1864, he was detailed as 


aide-de-camp to Colonel Thomas A. Smyth, commanding 
Third Brigade, Second Division of the Second Army Corps. 
On the first of August, 1864, he was made judge-advocate 
on the staff of Major-General John Gibbon, commanding 
the Second Division, Second Army Corps, and served thus 
until January 15, 1865, when he was detailed as aide to 
Major-General John Gibbon, commanding the Twenty- 
fourth Army Corps, Arm)) of the James, and as acting 
judge-advocate of the corps. He remained on duty in the 
latter capacity until mustered out of service, June 4, 1865. 
During this period Colonel Potter was present in the 
following engagements : Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Auburn, Bristoe Station, Blackburn's Ford, Locust Grove, 
campaign of Mine Run, Morton's Ford, Wilderness, Cold 
Harbor, the entire campaign of Petersburg, Deep Bottom 
(first and second engagements). Reams' Station, Hatcher's 
Run, Boydton Road, assault and capture of Petersburg, 
Rice's Station and Appomattox Court House. By an 
order from headquarters, Twenty-fourth Army Corps, in 
company with five other officers, he was detailed to deliver 
the colors, surrendered by General Lee's army, seventy-six 
in number, to Honorable Edward M. Stanton, of the War 
Department, which ceremony occurred on May i, 1865. 
He was the only New Jersey officer present on this 

Colonel Potter, during his military career, displayed 
gallantry and judgment, which won for him the highest 
encomiums from his superior officers. Colonel Potter 
received from Princeton College his degree of A. B. in 
1863 and of A. M. in 1866. He was admitted as an 
attorney at law in 1865, and as a counselor in 1869. Hav- 
ing begun practice in Bridgeton, he, in 1870, formed a 
co-partnership with J. Boyd Nixon, with whom he has 
since continued his professional labors, and attained a 
prominent position at the bar of New Jersey. 


He was a delegate to the Republican National Conven- 
tion at Chicago in 1868, as also to the convention held at 
Cincinnati in 1876, and an elector on the Garfield ticket in 
1880. He was elected an honorary member of the Society 
of the Cincinnati of New Jersey, July 4, 1874, and presi- 
dent of the New Jersey Officers' Association for 1880. The 
colonel was, on the 27th of May, 1869, married to Alice, 
daughter of the late Alfred Eddy, D D., of Niles, Mich. 
Their children are Alfred E., James Boyd, David, Alice, 
and Francis Delavan. 


Ezra A. Carman, colonel of the Thirteenth Regiment 
New Jersey Volunteers, entered the service in 1861, being 
commissioned on September 14th of that year lieutenant- 
colonel of the Seventh Regiment. He was wounded in the 
battle of Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862, and was commis- 
sioned colonel July 8, 1862. He organized the Thirteenth 
Regiment, which he commanded, and with it proceeded to 
Washington on August 31st. He was disabled at Antietam 
and Chancellorsville, and at Gettysburg was placed in 
command of a provisional brigade, which was sent to 
support Gregg's cavalry, on the evening of July 3d. At 
the close of the Gettysburg campaign three regiments of 
the brigade to which the Thirteenth belonged were sent to 
New York to aid in quelling the riots which had been in 
progress there and Colonel Carman commanded the bri- 
gade then composed of the Thirteenth New Jersey, One 
Hundred and Seventh and One Hundred and Fiftieth New 
York Regiments. When the Thirteenth Regiment, with 
the Twelfth Corps, went west, he was appointed president 
of a military commission which held its sessions in 
TuUahoma, Tenn. In the Atlanta campaign the Thirteenth 


Regiment was frequently engaged with the enemy, 
notably at Resaca, Cassville, Pumpkin Vine Creek— some- 
times called Dallas and also New Hope Church — Nancy's 
Creek, Buffalo Creek, Peach Tree Creek, Kulp's Farm, 
and several times in front of Atlanta, on each occasion 
winning golden opinions for its gallantry and bravery. 
On the March to the Sea, Colonel Carman commanded the 
brigade, and in front of Savannah held the extreme left of 
the army. The brigade was ordered to the South Carolina 
shore, for the purpose of closing up Hardee's only avenue 
of escape, but that wily officer, afraid of a movement of 
that kind, as he had noted the crossing of the brigade to 
Argyle Island in the middle of the Savannah river, evacu- 
ated the city, which was entered by part of the Second 
Division of the Twentieth Corps, who captured a guard 
detail of the enemy who were unable to get away. At 
Savannah Colonel Carman was ordered to Nashville on 
special duty. He was brevetted brigadier-general of 
volunteers for gallant and meritorious services during the 
war to date from March 13, 1865. 



General Frederick Halsey Harris, of the Thirteenth 
Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers, was born in the city of 
Newark, N, J,, March 7, 1830. He is descended on the 
maternal side from the Baldwin and Gould families, who 
settled in Newark over two hundred years ago. His 
grandfather, Robert Baldwin, was born in Orange, N, J,, 
and was engaged in the war of 181 2, on the New Jersey 
coast. His mother was a grand-daughter of General Will- 
iam Gould of Caldwell. His father's ancestors were 
originally of Welsh origin and the date of their settlement 
in this country is forgotten. Moses Harris, the grand- 


father of General Harris was born in Morrisania, New 
York, and in 1805 moved to Newark, N. J., when the 
father of the general was an infant. He was engaged for 
many years in business near the corner of Market and 
Broad streets in Newark as a merchant tailor. His 
father's mother was a Halsey and came originally from 
Elizabeth, N. J. William H. Harris, his father, was an 
architect and builder for many years in Newark, where he 
learned his trade. 

The subject of this sketch attended private school in 
Newark when a boy, being one of the attendants at the 
Newark Academy — where the postoffice building now 
stands — afterward attending the select school of Reverend 
William R. Weeks, D. D., on Washington street. In the 
Fall of 1844 he was sent to the Bloomfield Academy, then 
under the management of Messrs. Holt & Rindler, where 
he remained until the Fall of 1847. A long-cherished 
desire to enter Princeton College, for which he was pre- 
paring, was interfered with by the serious illness of his 
father, who urgently requested him to leave school and 
temporarily abandon the proposed college course and the 
profession of medicine, which he then contemplated. This 
put an end to his schooling ; until 1858 he remained in 
business with his father, when he began the reading of 
law in the office of Charles R. Waugh, Esq., afterward 
presiding judge of Essex county, and in the office of David 
A. Hayes, Esq.> and was admitted to the bar in June, 

The urgent call for troops after the Peninsula campaign 
led him to begin recruiting for the Thirteenth Regiment, 
both in the city of Newark and township of Bloomfield, 
and on the 25th of August, 1862, his company, E, was 
mustered into the United States service with the regiment, 


and on Sunday, August 31, proceeded to Washington. He 
participated in the Chancellorsville campaign and at the 
"battle of Gettysburg, Company E was the color company 
■of the regiment. During his military service Captain 
Harris was constantly with his regiment and on frequent 
important occasions commanding it, notably at the 
time of the advance of the army to Atlanta, where 
the Thirteenth under Colonel Harris was sent out 
to support the skirmish line then heavily engaged. 
Advancing his regiment to a knoll overlooking the 
enemy's breast works, he halted it there, and when the 
skirmish line was driven back, he deployed the right and 
left companies as skirmishers, until the skirmish line ad- 
vanced and reestablished itself. This was the nearest point 
to Atlanta ever reached by any command during the siege, 
and it was fortified by the Thirty-third Wisconsin Regi- 
ment, which relieved the Thirteenth. On the arrival of the 
regiment at Savannah Colonel Carman was sent to Nash- 
ville on special service, and during the whole of the Caro- 
lina campaign, Colonel Harris commanded it, participat- 
ing in the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville. In the 
latter battle the Thirteenth Regiment particularly dis- 
tinguished itself under his command, by repulsing the 
enemy, who were advancing in large numbers, and won the 
highest encomiums of praise from its superior officers. At 
Goldsboro, N. C, severe illness caused him to relinquish the 
command to Major John H. Arey, and he went to hospital 
at Newburn for medical treatment. He rejoined the regi- 
ment at Washington and participated in the grand review, 
and was mustered out with it on June 8, 1865. On July 
17, 1864, he was promoted major and November i, 1864, 
lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. For gallant and meri- 
torious services during the campaign in Georgia and the 
Carolinas he was brevetted colonel, and subsequently 


brigadier-general of United States Volunteers for gallant 
services a«t Bentonville. 

At the close of the war General Harris was married to 
Miss Elizabeth J. Torrey at Honesdale, Pa. He never held 
political office though frequently solicited to be a candi- 
date for numerous important and lucrative positions. In 
the Summer of 1865 he resumed the practice of law, and in 
the Spring of 1866 became the treasurer and assistant 
secretary of the American Insurance Company of Newark. 
Being elected a director, he continued to perform the 
duties of secretary and treasurer until the, death of Presi- 
dent Gould in January, 1883, when he was unanimously 
elected to fill the position of president of that old and 
prominent company. 


Surgeon J. J. H. Love, of the Thirteenth Regiment New 
Jersey Volunteers, was born on April 3^ 1833, in Harmony 
^township, Warren county. New Jersey. His father was the 
Rev. Robert Love, a Presbyterian minister, and he was 
the great grandson of Lieutenant Thomas Love, aide-de- 
camp to General Samuel Cochrane of the Continental 
Army during the Revolutionary War. Doctor Love was 
educated at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., and in the 
medical department of the University, city of New York, 
graduating from the former in 185 1 and from the latter in 
1855. When the Thirteenth Regiment was being recruited 
he was appointed surgeon on July 19, 1862. He had seen 
some service, however, previous to this. After the battle of 
Williamsburg and the beginning of the siege of Yorktown, 
May 5, 1862, he was sent out as a volunteer surgeon by 
Governor Olden to look after and care for the wounded 
of New Jersey regiments. On the 23d of March, 1863, 
Surgeon Love was assigned to duty as surgeon-in-chief 


Third Brigade, First Division, Twelfth Army Corps, and 
■served in that capacity during the battle of Gettysburg, 
doing most efficient service in the care of the wounded. 
On the first of August, 1863, when the Twelfth Corps had 
settled down for a rest at Kelly's Ford, Va., after the 
arduous campaign then just ended, he was appointed 
surgeon-in-chief First Division, Twelfth Corps, and became 
a member of General A. S. Williams' staff. In this 
■capacity he served until the following January, after 
accompanying the corps to the west, when on the 28th of 
that month, 1864, he resigned his commission and was 
honorably discharged from the service. On his return 
home he at once entered upon the practice of his profes- 
sion, in which he holds a high place. 


Captain Ambrose M. Matthews, of Orange, N. J., was 
engaged in business as a hat manufacturer when the war 
broke out, and leaving his business he enlisted on May 10, 
1861, as a private in Company G, Second Regiment, New 
Jersey Volunteers. Twice he was offered a first lieuten- 
ancy in the Excelsior Brigade, but declined, and on the 
fifth of August, 1862, was discharged by Special Order 
No. 223, C. S. Headquarters Army of the Potomac, at 
Harrison's Landing, Va., at the request of the Governor 
of the State, to assist in raising a new regiment. On 
August 22, 1862. he was commissioned second lieutenant 
of Company E, Thirteenth Regiment, New Jersey Volun- 
teers, and was mustered with it into the United States 
service three days later. At the battle of Antietam he 
was wounded, and his gallant services there were recog- 
nized in his promotion as first lieutenant of Company K. 
On November i, 1862, he was promoted Captain of Com- 
pany I. At Chancellorsville, where the Thirteenth Regi^ 


ment did splendid and praiseworthy service, Captain 
Matthews was again wounded, and he received honorable 
mention in a regimental order, issued a few days after 
the return to their old camp, by Captain Beardsley, who 
was then in command. At Gettysburg his Company I, 
with that of Captain Ryerson's Company C, comprised 
the left flank of the regiment, they being formed almost 
perpendicular to the main line, creating an angle. This 
brought these two companies, then commanded by Cap- 
tain Matthews (Captain Ryerson acting as major of the 
regiment) directly in front of the enemy, and when the 
charge by part of Steuart's rebel brigade was made upon 
this position, they aided in repulsing it. Captain Ryerson 
was wounded, and Captain Matthews had a narrow escape 
from death, a ball penetrating his hat just above the 
scalp line. At Resaca, Ga., he was again wounded. 
Captain Matthews accompanied his regiment through all 
its campaigns, the siege of Atlanta, the March to the Sea, 
the Carolina campaign, and in every emergency was 
noted for his courage and coolness. He was a strict disci- 
plinarian and held his men to a rigid performance of duty, 
and always looked carefully after their interests. No man 
of the Thirteenth Regiment to-day is held in higher 
esteem by his comrades than the subject of this sketch. 


Colonel James N. Duffy, the President of the Gettys- 
burg Battle-Field Commission of New Jersey, served 
during the battle on the staff of General H. G. Wright,, 
commanding First Division, Sixth Army Corps, his rank 
being that of lieutenant-colonel and his duties those of 
acting assistant inspector-general. Colonel Duffy entered 
the service as captain of Company C, Second Regiment, 
New Jersey Volunteers, in May 27, 1861. On July i, 1861^ 



he was promoted major, and on September 14, 1862, was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Third New Jersey 
Regiment. September 29, 1863, after the battle of Gettys- 
burg, he was commissioned colonel of the Fourth Regi- 
ment New Jersey Volunteers, but as the organization had 
become reduced below the minimum he could not be 
mustered. He served with the Third Regiment until the 
close of the war and was mustered out with it as lieu- 
tenant-colonel June 23, 1864. Colonel Duffy has been 
prominently identified with the manufacturing interests 
of Newark and for several years maintained a large 
factory for the manufacture of patent and enameled 
leather in that city. Subsequently he started a factory in 
Eldred, Pennsylvania. His appointment as a member of 
the State Commission for the erection of monuments at 
Gettysburg was received with great favor by all the sur- 
vivors of the commands interested. 


William H. Penrose was born at Madison Barracks, N. 
Y., March 10, 1832, and his early life was spent in garri- 
son, following his father, who was an ofhcer in the 
Regular Army, to the various posts at which he was sta- 
tioned. The outbreak of the Mexican war separated the 
father from his family, the latter finding a comfortable 
home with the Honorable Charles B. Penrose, of Carlisle, 
Pa., and William was then sent to Dickinson College. 
While here the death of his father occurred, and as the 
family were not in affluent circumstances, it became 
necessary for the young lad to seek employment, which 
he found in the machine shops at Reading, Pa. The old 
military instinct, imbibed when a mere boy, kept con- 
tinually asserting itself within him, and the breaking out 
of the rebellion gave him the opportunity he sought to 


enter the service. Receiving an appointment in the 
Regular Army — the commission dating April 13, 1861 — he 
wa3 assigned, as second lieutenant, to the Third Infantry, 
but as he was then out West and his company in Texas 
he was ordered to report to the commanding officer of the 
Fourth Artillery, then stationed at Fort Randall, Dakota. 
From here he went to New York to join his company of the 
Third Infantry which had arrived from Texas, and he 
there ascertained that it had been surrendered by General 
Twiggs to the State authorities, and the men paroled. 
Five of the companies of the regiment were at Wash- 
ington, and after considerable delay Lieutenant Pen- 
rose secured his orders and transportation to go to the 
Capital where he arrived two days before the first battle of 
Bull Run, and found his regiment encamped at Arlington, 
the commanding officer being Major (afterward Major- 
General) George Sykes. The regulars were soon after 
brought to Washington and put on provost duty, and 
Lieutenant Penrose was selected for duty in the Secret 
Service. Just after the battle of Ball's Bluff he was 
called to Philadelphia by Lieutenant-Colonel Weister of 
the First California Regiment (Colonel Baker's), after- 
ward known as the Seventy-first Pennsylvania, and was 
tendered the colonelcy of the regiment. This was a great 
surprise to the young officer, but learning that he had 
been recommended by some of the oldest and best officers 
in the army, he consented to accept it. Days passed and 
weeks flew by until at last one Sunday, while attending 
church, a telegram was brought to him asking why he did 
not come and take command. The telegram further stated 
that Colonel Weister had his commission and the order 
from army headquarters to proceed to the regiment. This 
was a matter of extraordinary importance to Penrose, and 
going to the adjutant-general with the telegram, that 



officer, much confused, said he would se(; about it. At 
midnight that same night marching orders were received, 
and nothing more was heard of the order until the army 
had reached Harrison's Landing, when an investigation 
revealed the fact that the order had been issued but Gen- 
eral Sykes pigeon-holed it, as he was opposed to any 
officer of his command leaving it. During the Peninsula 
campaign the colonelcy of three other regiments were 
offered him, but the same power intervened to prevent his 
taking either of them. Sometime in January, 1863, Gen- 
eral Torbert, then commanding the First New Jersey 
Brigade, sent for Penrose, and asked him if he would take 
a regiment. He explained the difficulty of getting away 
from Sykes, but on Torbert's assurance that he would take 
care of that part of it, Penrose accepted. Some time went 
by and the matter had about passed from his mind when 
a note from General Torbert informed him that he had 
his commission as colonel of the Fifteenth Regiment New 
Jersey Volunteers, and the order for him to take command 
would be issued at once. Penrose received his order and 
was in the performance of his new duties before Sykes 
knew anything about it. From this time on the record of 
Colonel Penrose is that of the Fifteenth Regiment. Its 
forced march from Manchester to Gettysburg with the 
Sixth Corps, is recorded elsewhere in the pages of this 
book. Colonel Penrose's own recollections of what trans- 
pired when the column reached Rock Creek, are thus 
described by himself. As no record of the exploit appears 
in the history of the Fifteenth Regiment, it is given in 
full here. General Penrose says : 

" We had arrived none too soon. Our troops had been repulsed at 
almost every point, the fate of the army trembled in the balance. 
Canteens had hardly been filled when the order came to cross. The 
bluffs on the opposite side were steep, the water deep, but nothing 


could stop those brave men. In we went, and up the steep ascent on 
the other side. I was leading the brigade with the gallant Fifteenth. 
Hardly had I reached the level ground beyond when Captain Whitlier, 
personal aid-de-camp to General Sedgwick, rode up in great haste and 
saying to me, ' Penrose, for God's sake get to the front as quick as you 
can; cut loose and follow me, everything is gone to the devil ! ' I put 
the men on a dog trot. Meeting a column crossing our track I gave the 
order to close up and cut through it, which was promptly obeyed. I fol- 
lowed on and came into line just in rear of the Third Regulars, who 
were on the right of the Fifth Corps— our lines had been driven to the 
crest of the hill. The situation was everything but encouraging. Regu- 
lar formation of the troops engaged there was none. Every man 
appeared to be fighting on his own hook, but with a determination not to 
yield one inch further. An incident occurred just at this time, which 
in my opinion had great weight in the result of that day's light. As I 
went into line a man approached me having as prisoner a Confederate 
colonel mounted. The man asked me where headquarters were. I 
pointed out the corps flag in a field to the rear. The colonel then 
addressed me as follows: ' For God's sake, how big is this Catho- 
lic corps?' (having reference to our corps badge, a Greek cross.) I 
answered 'Why?/ He replied, ' You were thirty miles from here last 
night. We saw your colors (corps) coming over the hill, and the orders 
for our reinforcements to be pushed in were countermanded.' It will 
thus be seen that our timely arrival checked a movement that, had it 
been made, would have given them the crest of the hill, and cut our 
army in two. As soon as my line was formed it was moved forward* 
Going over the weary and worn out troops in our front, down the hill 
we went at a thundering pace, driving every thing before us, across 
the swamp at its foot, through the woods, never stopping until we 
reached a house just on the edge of the wheat-field, where the enemy 
made a decided stand. Here also stood an entire battery, every horse 
killed. The enemy had captured it in the afternoon, but had had no 
time to take it from the field. Here I halted, as night was coming 
on, and I could see none of our troops on my right or left. Cov- 
ering these guns with our rifles, I deployed two companies to my 
right before I made a connection with our troops, finding them to 
be part of General Wheaton's command which had gone in on my 
right. Six companies were deployed to my left before finding any 
one to connect with ; it was then, if I remember right, with the 
Twelfth Regulars. Here we lay all night, but at the first peep of day 


I advanced and took the house and secured the battery. In this posi- 
tion we remained until about 12 m, of the third when I was relieved 
by the Third Regulars, and after considerable search found and joined 
my brigade about 3 p. m. In the last day's fight the brigade was not 
called into action, and the Fifteenth was the only regiment of the 
brigade that took part in the fighting on that memorable field. 
The advanced position gained on the night of the second by the 
Fifteenth was the same that had been occupied by the Third Corps, 
and from which they had been driven, speaks louder than words for 
their gallantry. Their steadiness under most trying circumstances, 
speaks volumes for the discipline for which the regiment was noted, 
and thus ended our share, of no insignificant value, in the turning and 
decisive battle of the war." 

On the tenth day of May, 1864, Colonel Penrose was 
assigned to the command of the First Brigade by order 
of General Grant, approved by the President. This was 
a mark of distinction seldom conferred upon a junior 
officer, and is probably the only instance of the kind in 
the Army of the Potomac, except in the case of general 
officers to command the army. On the nineteenth of 
October, 1864, Colonel Penrose was brevetted brigadier- 
general of United States Volunteers. He is now major of 
the Twelfth Infantry United States Army, and is stationed 
at Fort Sully, Dakota Territory. 


A. Judson Clark, commander of Battery " B," First New 
Jersey Artillery, was born in Fayetteville, N. Y., October, 
1838, and became a citizen of Newark in i860, where he 
began the study of medicine. Enlisted April, 1861, for 
three months under the first call for seventy-five thousand 
men and was made sergeant of Company F, First Regi- 
ment New Jersey Volunteers. At the expiration of his 
term of service assisted in organizing and putting into the 
field the second battery of light artillery (Battery " B " 


First New Jersey), then known as Beam's battery, being 
commissiGned as first lieutenant. After the death of 
Captain John E. Beam was promoted captain and the 
battery was afterward known as Clark's battery. Through- 
out the whole period of the war the battery, was promi- 
nently engaged in every important battle except that of 
Antietam and won a splendid reputation for its fighting 
and staying qualities. At Chancellorsville Captain Clark 
was placed in command of the First Division Artillery* 
Third Army Corps. When the attack on the Eleventh 
Corps was made by Jackson, Clark's battery was at Hazel 
Grove firing on the Furnace road. The enemy came 
through to the right of Sickles' corps, and in close pursuit 
of Howard's fleeing troops. The battery was immediately 
turned around, and began firing to the rear with canister 
which enabled Pleasonton to form his line. At Gettysburg 
Captain Clark was with his battery during all of the 
terrific firing of the second of July, and the gallant conduct 
of the battery on that occasion is well attested by the 
frequent mention, in the official reports, of its splendid 
services. At the close of the day's engagement Colonel 
Randolph, chief of artillery of the Third Corps, was 
wounded and Captain Clark was appointed to that office 
which he held until just before the fight at Mine Run when 
Randolph returned to duty. At the fight at Ream's 
Station in front of Petersburg Captain Clark was slightly 
wounded in the forehead by a minie ball. When the terms 
of service of the three year members of the battery who 
had not reenlisted expired. Captain Clark accompanied 
them, to Trenton where they were mustered out, and 
immediately afterward returned to the battery remaining 
with it until the close of the war. At the time of the 
surrender the battery was in position in the line of the 
Second Corps, to which it then belonged. Captain Clark 



was specially recommended to the President for promotion 
by General Sickles for bravery and gallantry at Chancel- 
lorsville and Gettysburg, and in 1864, General Hunt, chief 
of artillery Army of the Potomac, General Birney, General 
Mott and others sent strong letters to the State authorities 
urging that the several batteries of the State be given a 
field officer and recommending Captain Clark for the 
place, and in 1865, General Mott sent the following 
additional appeal to the Governor, but for some reason or 
other was not complied with. The following is General 
Mott's letter : 

Headquarters TiiutD Division, Second Army Corps. \ 
May 21, 1865. ( 

Governor : 

As New Jersey has five batteries in the service, and no field 
officer — four being entitled to a major — allow me to call your attention 
to Captain A. Judson Clark, Battery " B," as an officer justly entitled 
to the position. Captain Clark has served since 1861, is the senior 
artillery officer from the State, and has on all occasions conducted 
himself in an efficient and gallant manner. He is about leaving the 
service, as his battery is to be mustered out, and a recognition of his 
services by th3 State will be a just reward for gallant and meritorious 
conduct in the field. 

I taks great pl3a5ure in making this recommendation as the captain 
has served under, with or near my command in almost all of the actions 
of the Army of the Potomac. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. Mott, Brevet Major-General. 
His Excellency Joel Parker, Governor, etc. 

Captain Clark was brevetted major of United States 
Volunteers for gallant and meritorious services in front of 
Petersburg, by Congress, to date from April 2, 1865. Since 
the war Major Clark's signal abilities have been recognized 
by his own people who have repeatedly appointed him to 
responsible positions, first as chief of police of the city of 
Newark, then as secretary of the Board of Assessments 


and Revision of Taxes, and as Receiver of Taxes. He is 
also a prominent officer in the National Guard of the 


Major William Wallace Morris was born in the city of 
New York in 1830, and in 1832 his parents took up their 
residence in the city of Newark. His ancestors on his 
mother's side were Huguenots, who settled in Canada in 
the sixteenth century, after the massacre of Paris, France. 
His paternal ancestry were of the Morrises who immigrated 
from Wales, and settled in Monmouth county. New Jersey, 
in 1669. His great grandfathers on both sides were 
soldiers during the Revolutionary War from 1776 to 1783, 
and in the war of 181 2 and 1814 both fought against the 
British. Many of the male members of the family had 
fought in every war on this continent except in the war 
with Mexico. Major Morris was educated in private 
schools, and learned the coach, harness and saddlery busi- 
ness and was superintendent of a large factory at the time 
of his enlistment. When a stripling, he joined the old 
Lafayette Guards as a private, and subsequently became 
Ensign, and afterward joined the City Battalion under 
Major Carter. In 1861 Major Morris raised a company 
and was about to offer their services to the government 
when a severe family affliction compelled him to defer his 
departure to the field. In August, 1862, under the call for 
ten thousand men he recruited Company A, Twenty-sixth 
Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, having enlisted as a 
private soldier, and was so mustered in September 3d. 
Subsequently he was elected captain of the company, and 
was mustered in the United States service September i8th. 
He left with his regiment for the front from Camp 
Frelinghuysen September 26, 1862, and was promoted 



major November 19th following, and mustered in Decem- 
ber 6, 1862. He took part in the battle of Fredericksburg, 
under General Burnside December 13th and 14th, acting 
as colonel of the regiment a considerable part of the time, 
having but one staff officer to assist him — Sergeant-Major 
Amos J. Cummings, the regiment numbering nine hun- 
dred and seventy-five men present. Major Morris was one 
of the storming column at Fredericksburg Heights, and 
participated in the battle of Salem Church May 3d and 
the battle of Salem Heights or Banks' Ford May 4, 1863. 
At the storming of the rifle pits at " Franklin's Crossing," 
three miles below Fredericksburg, June 5, 1863, he was 
acting as lieutenant-colonel. 

During the great draft riot in New York and Newark in 
July, 1863, when the Newark " Mercury " newspaper office 
owned by ex-Sheriff E. N. Miller, and his residence was 
attacked by a mob — Sheriff Miller being at that time pro- 
vost marshal of the district — Major Morris offered his ser- 
vices which were gladly accepted, and Sheriff Miller com- 
missioned him to organize a body of veterans, secure arms 
and make arrangements with the military district com- 
mander. General Wool, to put down the enemies of peace 
and good order. Major Morris organized some four hun- 
dred men, and many of his brother officers rallied around 
him, among whom were Captains Fordham, P. F. Rogers, 
John Hunkele, John Mclntee, Mark Sears, Lieutenant 
Rochus Heinisch, and others. Before the arrangements 
with General Wool were fully completed the riot in New 
York was put down and that in Newark speedily ended. 


Lieutenant Rochus Heinisch was born in the city of 
Newark, N. J., December, 1835. He was educated in 
private schools, and was brought up in manufacturing 


and business pursuits, following the cutlery business in 
his father's factory. At the age of seventeen he joined 
the Putnam Horse Guards, a famous battalion of mounted 
men, commanded by Major Heinisch, the father of Rochus. 
Subsequently he joined Company B, Newark City 
Battalion, and during the war enlisted as a private soldier 
in Company A, Twenty-sixth New Jersey Volunteers. He 
was afterward elected second lieutenant and was pro- 
moted first lieutenant in the field. He participated in the 
several engagements of his regiment, and was a faithful 
and a brave soldier. At the advance of the Twenty-sixth 
across the Rappahannock on June 5th. Lieutenant 
Heinisch was one of the very first to enter the rebel earth 
works. At the expiration of his term of service he 
reentered business life, and served two terms in the 
House of Assembly of the New Jersey Legislature. 


Hugh H. Janeway was born in New Brunswick, N. J. He 
went into the service as first lieutenant of Company L, 
First New Jersey Cavalry, and soon became noted for his 
daring as well as for his other strong soldierly qualities. 
He was devoid of fear, and many are the incidents related 
of his personal encounters with the enemy, and his adven- 
tures. He had been in the service but a short time when 
he went on a scoutmg expedition and meeting with a 
body of the enemy he boldly charged into them. Janeway 
himself was wounded in seven different places, and was 
left for dead, but his wounds, though severe, were none 
of them fatal, and his reappearance among his men for 
duty a short time after was hailed with great joy. Febru- 
ary 19, 1862, Janeway was promoted captain; on January 27, 
1863, major ; July 6, 1864, lieutenant-colonel, and on Octo- 
ber II, 1864, colonel of the First Cavalry. During some 


of the encounters with the enemy at Trevillian's Station 
Colonel Janeway was wounded, but he soon after returned 
and took command of his regiment. In the Weldon Rail- 
road expedition in December, 1864, the First New Jersey 
bore a conspicuous part. Nearing Hicksford, where the 
road to Gaston and Raleigh branches off from the Weldon 
line, a force of the enemy was found in strong works, 
defending the crossing of the Meherin river. The works 
were covered by a thick wood extending for a mile along 
the road ; and along the skirts of a wood a body of cav- 
alry was posted. Colonel Janeway sent forward Captain 
Brooks to charge these men and clear the way. Pyne, in 
his description of this action, says : 

"Of course no Southern cavalry then in the field could stand against 
a charge in which Robbins, Brooks and Craig were all engaged. 
Along a narrow road, breaking off here and there to pursue a fugitive 
visible through the trees, the Fifth Squadron swept forward at the run; 
until the road took a sudden twist, and lost itself in an abbatis of felled 
trees, perfectly impassable for horses. From the rifle-pits along the 
front of the rebel works a heavy fire was poured into the squadron as 
soon as it appeared. Robbins received a bullet through the hat, which 
grazed his head; Craig and Johnson had their horses shot and some 
of the men were unhorsed in like manner; but Brooks, covering his 
men as well as possible, held his position until the rest of the brigade 
came up. Then Sargent, with the First Massachusetts, was ordered 
to make a charge. Nothing could be more gallantly attempted; but 
it was wild to hope for any success so long as the enemy were not 
frightened from their guns. Sargent fell dead from his horse before 
they took the gallop; and the regiment pulled up in confusion, with the 
loss of several horses and some men. Then Janeway and the rest of 
the New Jersey took the field. Janeway was in his element at once. 
There never was^a quiet-mannered man who took more delight in fight- 
ing, whether mounted or on foot; and no one ever did his work more 
thoroughly and with more perfect management of the troops under his 
command. As a consequence the regiment was always ready to do 
what he directed with a confidence that made them irresistible. Dis- 
mounting his whole force under cover of the woods, he charged them 


straight into the rifle-pits, over ditches and fallen trees, under a heavy- 
fire of musketry and artillery from the woods behind. Nothing would 
have been more after Janeway's heart than a charge onward into the 
rebel forts, a quarter of a mile beyond." 

At Dinwiddie Court House Janeway was in the very 
thickest of the fighting and Davies, who commanded the 
brigade, being wounded, Janeway succeeded him only to 
be wounded in turn. Soon recovering Janeway was again 
with his regiment, and at Five Forks distinguished him- 
self by his bravery. At Amelia Springs, the regiment 
again encountered the enemy, and Colonel Janeway imme- 
diately ordered a charge, in leading which he was shot 
through the head, and died almost instantly. This 
was April 5, 1865, but four days before the surrender of 
Lee at Appomattox. Colonel Janeway had endeared 
himself to every man in his command, and no braver 
soldier, truer patriot, or courteous gentleman ever per- 
ished on the field of battle than he. 


Sir Percy Wyndham, colonel of the First New Jersey 
Cavalry (Sixteenth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers), was 
a member of an ennobled English family, son of Captain 
Charles Wyndham, of the Fifth Light Cavalry of the 
English army, and born on board the ship "Arab " in " the 
Downs," September 22, 1833. When but fifteen years of 
age he entered the "Students' Corps " in Paris, and took 
part in the French revolution of 1848. In July of that 
year he was transferred, at his own request, to the navy, 
and given the rank of ensign of marines. He resigned his 
commission in the French navy, April 7, 1850, and in the 
following year entered the artillery branch of the English 
army. Resigning in October, 1852, he received the com- 
mission of a second lieutenant in the Eighth Austrian 



Lancers in December following. He served a period of 
two years, being promoted first lieutenant on April 15 
1854, and squadron commander shortly afterward. 

On May i, i860, he resigned from the Austrian service 
to enter the Italian, and was commissioned a captain on 
the twentieth. He greatly distinguished himself by his 
dashing gallantry in the battles of Palermo, Nuloggo, 
Rager and Capua. On July 20th he was promoted to the 
rank of major and placed in command of his regiment, 
and on October i, to that of lieutenant-colonel on the field 
before Capua and given command of a brigade by General 
Garibaldi in person. He was knighted on the field by 
King Victor Emanuel and appointed a chevalier of the 
Military Order of Savoy. Colonel Wyndham remained in 
command of his brigade till October 8, 1861, when he 
obtained a leave of absence for twelve months and came 
to the United States to offer his services to the Federal 

Early in the month of February, 1862, upon the special 
recommendation of General McClellan and by the appoint- 
ment of the Governor, he became Colonel of the First 
New Jersey Cavalry. He assumed command of the regi- 
ment on the 9th, and called upon officers and men alike to 
aid him in securing the most efficient condition by a strict 
obedience to orders and thorough military discipline. 
The joint influence of Colonel Wyndham and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Karge was felt almost immediately, and by the 
middle of May the regiment was performing meritorious 
military service. On the afternoon of June 6, the regi- 
ment drove the enemy through the village of Harrison- 
burgh, Va., and fell into an ambuscade in the woods, to 
the southeast of the town, in which Colonel Wyndham was 
captured and considerable loss sustained ; the colonel soon 
afterward escaped. October 30, a skirmish took place 


between a detachment of cavalry under command of 
Colonel Wyndham and a force of rebels stationed at 
Thoroughfare Gap, resulting m the retirement of the latter 
to the almost impassable hills in the vicinity ; and on 
February 2, 1863, Colonel Wyndham surprised Warrenton, 
Va. He took part in General Stahl's reconnoissance, 
leading the advance in the attack upon the enemy at 
Snicker's Ferry, and during the raid of General Stoneman 
through Virginia in April and May, 1863, he commanded 
the cavalry which took possession of Columbia. 

The regiment was on almost constant duty from the day 
Colonel Wyndham took command, scouting, raiding and 
fighting ; while its impetuous leader was time and again 
placed at the head of a brigade when services of an extra- 
ordinary character were to be attempted. He was severely 
wounded in the battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, and 
was mustered out of the service on July 5, 1864, when 
he opened a military school in New York city at which he 
was doing fairly well. Wyndham, however, was an 
adventurer, of a roving disposition, and when war broke 
out in Europe — 1866-1867 — he gave up his school, joined the 
Italian army and was appointed by Garibaldi a member of 
his staff. At the close of this war he returned to New 
York and with an Italian chemist, engaged in petroleum 
refining. An explosion of one of the large stills ruined 
them, and Wyndham went to Calcutta where he started 
the well-known comic paper *' The Indian Charivari." 
While in Calcutta he organized an Italian opera company, 
and married a rich widow. It would be natural to find 
him now settling down for the remainder of his days, but 
married life evidently possessed little attraction for him, 
as soon after that event he went into lumber operations, 
and in speculation in timber forests at Mandalay lost all 
he had made in Calcutta. He then attempted to induce 


the Burmese Government to cultivate cotton on a large 
scale, and while they praised his schemes and promised 
generous aid in putting his ideas into execution, they did 
not provide him with any means to carry them out. He 
then became a hanger-on of the court at Mandalay and 
suffered many indignities at their hands. He had become 
reduced to great poverty, and had pawned his jewels and 
decorations to get money enough to pay his debts. While 
at Mandalay he constructed an immense balloon and 
hoped by giving exhibition ascensions to be able to 
amass sufficient means to release his decorations, but his 
first ascension led to his death in the following tragic 
manner, as described in the Rangoon (India) "Gazette" 
of January 27, 1879 : 

" How little did a single soul among that vast crowd of 
people assembled on Saturday last in and about Dalhousie 
Park to witness the balloon ascension, which had been 
advertised for the last two months and more, imagine that 
they would be spectators — nay, participators — of a tragedy 
which resulted in the death of one of the most adventurous 
men of the day. Throughout the whole day one stream of 
human beings had flowed toward the Royal Lakes, on the 
margin of which Colonel Wyndham's balloon had been 
inflated. The balloon was about seventy feet in height 
and at the largest part ninety or one hundred feet in 
circumference, made of common white shirting with a 
coat of waterproof varnish and a somewhat slight network 
of thin ropes over it, the ends of which were tied around 
the edge of the wickerwork car in which the aeronaut was 
to take his seat. Crowds of all caste and degree, from the 
fashionable European lady and gentleman to the veriest 
cooly who could afford a few annas for entrance money, 
went around the baloon, examined its exterior, peered into 
its interior through its wide mouth and criticised it or 


expressed their wonder. About a quarter past six o'clock 
Colonel Wyndham got into his car, in which four small 
bags of sand and some refreshments had been previously 
placed. Colonel Wyndham having given the signal to 
those who held it down, the balloon was gently released 
and rose, swaying for a short while from side to side then 
straightening itself and rising majestically upward. When 
it had reached an altitude of about three hundred feet it 
was seen to burst — open out — and then to collapse, the 
whole falling into the lake about a hundred yards from the 
bank, the remnants of the balloon falling over the car 
which contained Colonel Wyndham. A lot of boats pulled 
as fast as possible to the spot, but owing to the vast spread 
of cloth presented by the fragments of the balloon, it was 
full ten minutes before Colonel Wyndham's body could be 
recovered. It was immediately conveyed ashore, where it 
was placed in the hands of Doctors Oswald and Johnstone, 
but although they exerted themselves for over an hour all 
efforts to restore animation proved unavailing. It is the 
opinion of medical men from the appearance presented by 
the body, the bleeding from the nose and the peculiar 
nature of the accident, that before reaching the water he 
had been asphyxiated by the rushing out of the hot air or 
gas from the balloon. As to the causes of the balloon's 
collapse there can be little question. It was made two 
years ago of flimsy v/hite shirting, not improved by keeping, 
which when inflated showed several cracks or rents in it. 
These flaws, when pointed out to him. Colonel Wyndham 
said were nothing ; he had gone up in balloons with holes 
the size of a man's head. Thus ended a singular and 
adventurous career,"